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Medical Medical Dental Board Exam

State medical board suspends Dr. Michael Dick’s license | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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DECATUR, Ala. - facts prove the Alabama state Board of clinical Examiners  has issued a abstract suspension of Decatur health supervision professional Dr. Michael Dick's medical license.

A board's spokesman tested Dr. Dick became served nowadays. Dr. Dick is suspended from training until as a minimum his next hearing set for January 23, 2019. he's ordered to head earlier than the board, in accordance with the order.

The board's website offers prerogative here description of a summary suspension:

"If there's habits that the Board believes is risky to public safety, it might file public, formal allegations with the commission and request restrictions, revocation or other motion in opposition t the medical professional’s license. depending upon the urgency of the situation, the Board can request from the fee a abstract suspension of the healthcare professional’s license unless the case can subsist heard with the aid of the commission."

The board's motion curiously follows an emergency assembly nowadays. The brief license suspension appears to suggest Dr. Dick are usually not allowed to espy patients nor write prescriptions.

The board's action follows a listening to Wednesday the plot investigators reviewed the case towards Dick, who turned into organize guilty of harassment and pleaded guilty to two other harassment counts involving alleged incidents in his office.

In a unlock from the board, the participants famous the prices filed via the BME previous this week contained allegations of sexual misconduct, including inappropriate physical contact with sufferers without a genuine medical goal. these charges endure been posed alongside the three convictions of criminal offenses.

"we're thankful the commission identified the seriousness of the costs and the should prohibit Dr. Dick’s abilityto apply unless an administrative listening to can subsist held,” Wilson Hunter, BME regular suggestions spoke of

in keeping with a Tuesday press release from the BME, the board has been investigating the allegations against Dr. Dick seeing that February. The participants famous they labored intently with legislations enforcement to assist within the connected crook investigation. on the request of law enforcement, the BME delayed any professional motion towards Dr. Dick until the resolution of the criminal case. That took plot on September twenty eighth and resulted in his conviction on three divide costs of harassment involving effeminate sufferers.

“The closing aspect the BME desires to effect is compromise a criminal investigation by course of one of their legislations enforcement partners,” Hunter referred to within the advice unlock. “With that vicissitude settled, it has cleared the manner for the BME to movement ahead with submitting expenses and immediately suspending Dr. Dick’s scientific license."

Dick's observe is Alabama medicine and Rheumatology.

Dick has denied every bit of accusations of inappropriate behavior.

The BME encourages patients who believe their doctor has crossed a line to gain out to the board. patients are included from retaliation below Alabama legislation.“definitely, they will’t subsist in each examination latitude with every affected person, but when a health supervision provider takes odds of the doctor-patient relationship they are looking to find out about it,” Hunter pointed out.

In Thursday's advice unlock, the board included some counsel for patients:

My doctor has misplaced his license. where effect I secure medical care?

Your medical professional nevertheless has an responsibility to give to your care. in case your doctor can not apply medication, your doctor has an responsibility to aid you obtain supervision in different places.

My new medical professional didn’t supply me the identical medication my develope medical professional did. What should quiet I do?

every doctor has the accountability to grasp supervision of you to the best of his or her capability. That capacity the health supervision professional need to design a judgment about what is needed to deal with your condition.

diverse physicians may additionally deal with the equal medical conditions differently. put a question to your new health practitioner to justify why his or her medication determination differs out of your previous healthcare professional’s and to clarify its execs and cons.

be aware: your surgeon is every bit of the time trying to effect what's most useful for you, but you every bit of the time endure the commandeer to are looking for a second feeling or are searching for supervision in different places.

i will subsist able to’t secure my medical records from my historic medical professional. What should quiet I do?

you endure got a prerogative to your clinical records. Your historical medical professional should quiet prepare to provide them to you or transfer themto the new healthcare professional of your choice. he or she may additionally give these for free of suffuse or may additionally suffuse a minuscule processing fee.Your health supervision provider’s responsibility to you continues even after he or she is disciplined or in any other case prohibited from practising. Ifyour health practitioner will no longer transfer your scientific statistics, delight contact the Board of scientific Examiners at 334-242-4116.


medical manufacturer relocating North American headquarters to Forsyth County, bringing 100 jobs | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The headquarters and manufacturing core for a huge clinical traffic is coming to Forsyth County and bringing greater than one hundred jobs.

On Wednesday, the Cumming-Forsyth County Chamber of Commerce introduced Gant medical, a manufacturer of clinical products, is relocating its North American headquarters to a forty two,000-rectangular-foot pile on Shiloh street.

“Gant medical is a pretty honorable suitable for Forsyth County,” mentioned Robert long, vice chairman of monetary construction with the chamber, in a advice liberate. “we've in a similar course centered groups regional, so there's a skill pool of qualified candidates for key positions so that you can subsist confident this product’s success.”

Gant clinical is expected to genesis production in January 2019 and plans to create more than 100 jobs in the neighborhood inside five years.

“The CEO of Gant scientific has been a piece of the group for rather a while, so he knows what a distinguished conclusion Forsyth County is for this new project,” stated Forsyth County District 2 Commissioner Dennis Brown. “Their items are in reality resourceful, and that i’m delighted they chose Forsyth County for his or her headquarters and first U.S. manufacturing facility.”

The enterprise produces products for scientific, dental, assisted living, lengthy-time epoch and residential supervision markets, and items from the power might subsist offered across North america.

Gant clinical is the U.S. accomplice of Gant innovations, a corporation based mostly within the united kingdom.

At a piece session on Tuesday, commissioners unanimously accredited an inducement resolution linked to the challenge that might present a 10-12 months phased-in tax abatement which would not consist of school or bond millage taxes and an $11,477 credit score for construction makes it practicable for, influence costs, utility prices and different charges from the county.

lengthy spoke of prerogative through the meeting the enterprise “may additionally or may additionally no longer” movement ahead with the tax abatement.

“The enterprise has no longer made a conclusion on whether or not they’re going to grasp us up on that present, but that nevertheless is beneath consideration,” he noted.

He famous the venture had additionally looked at places in north Fulton and Gwinnett counties.

Commissioners additionally authorized discussing a conditional-use enable to enable the traffic to role 24 hours a day at their Oct. 18 assembly.

before publicly revealing Gant medical as the enterprise searching at the property and searching for the inducements, the project become called “project Orion.”

County supervisor Eric Johnson spoke of the company become the first inducement offered beneath a brand new monetary evolution ordinance accepted prior this yr.

based on information from the chamber, the undertaking can endure not less than $10.three million in new capital funding, 124 new jobs can subsist created over five years with an middling wage of $18.55 per hour and an further 23 p.c of the bottom salary in merits, and pay over $886,979 in property taxes over the next 20 years.

Tamil Nadu Dr MGR clinical college to revert to new examination rules | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

CHENNAI: The Tamil Nadu Dr MGR scientific university will from August 2012 once once more design it mandatory for scientific and dental students to secure at least 50% in each and every paper to limpid the examination, vice-chancellor Dr Mayil Vahanan Natarajan mentioned prerogative here on Monday.The school bought a verbal exchange from Dental Council of India secretary Dr SK Ojha asserting the DCI’s executive committee in its meeting determined that the eligibility standards and examination guidelines framed via the council endure been the naked minimum and that a state government or affiliating tuition become free to prescribe better requisites.

The college officials mentioned the clinical Council of India had already conveyed an identical message even though an affidavit filed within the Madras extravagant courtroom.

The college first introduced the new examination rules in August 2011 when greater than 40% of first 12 months medical students didn't limpid their examination.

There became a furore on campuses and scholar staged protests. After they moved courtroom and petitioned chief minister J Jayalalithaa, the institution was pressured to revise its choice. The court ordered the tuition to comply with MCI guidelines. The variety of first year students who passed the exam rose to eighty four%, however tuition officials weren’t satisfied with the exam and evaluation patterns. "Communications from DCI and MCI establishes the supremacy of the university in establishing better requisites in syllabus, curriculum, teaching, practicing and examination. here's a victory for the scientific institution. every bit of of the college and college students endure to abide by using their new rules," he mentioned. The tuition has promised to endure two lecturers evaluate every paper. The optimum ranking may subsist considered as the ultimate mark. If there is an immense change between the two evaluations, a third school should subsist called in, he mentioned.

The tuition officials said the medical Council of India had already conveyed the very message though an affidavit filed in the Madras elevated court.


NBDE-I Dental Board Exam piece II

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NBDE-I exam Dumps Source : Dental Board Exam piece II

Test Code : NBDE-I
Test title : Dental Board Exam piece II
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free pdf : 154 true Questions

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Dentist on course to getting license reinstated | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

DES MOINES - A former Waterloo dentist is on track to secure his license to rehearse dentistry reinstated.

State regulators had pulled Larry Hanus's license indefinitely in 1994, and he said the action was because he warned patients about health hazards connected to filings that contain mercury.

In the 13 years in between, Hanus has tried to secure his license reinstated, a process that has been delayed because of mental health concerns and a matter involving a vehicle theft charge.

Now the Iowa Dental Board issued an order recognizing Hanus's progress and outlining education and testing he must complete before his license is returned.

"I'm grateful the board has made the conclusion it has made," said Hanus, who now lives in Des Moines and is looking forward to getting back into dentistry.

He said there has been progress on the front of mercury-free dentistry since his license was suspended.

The Iowa Dental Board's 1994 order said Hanus failed to maintain a standard of competency in treating five patients, and made delusive statements to three patients about mercury amalgam fillings.

It required he reimburse the patients for the work and complete a course on diagnosis, treatment and restoration at an accredited dental school before his license would subsist reinstated.

Hanus paid back his clients and applied to reinstate his license in 2000, but he hadn't completed the educational requirements.

In the flap that followed, the board took issue with a felony vehicle theft suffuse pending against him in Wisconsin, and required he receive a mental health evaluation because of the correspondence he sent to board members that included documents espousing antigovernment theories similar to those held by the Posse Comitatus group.

Hanus later apologized for the correspondence.

The theft suffuse was reduced to a misdemeanor. The dental board recently accepted a mental health evaluation that was prepared as piece of the Wisconsin charge. It organize he was competent and didn't endure any psychiatric diagnosis or exhibit any mental illness.

Hanus has completed 76.5 hours of dental education since April but hasn't completed a full course of study, the board's recent ruling noted.

The board said Hanus's license will subsist reinstated after he completes an evaluation at the University of Illinois Dental School and finishes any remedial education the school recommends. He will besides endure to pass an examination by the Central Regional Dental Testing Service or the Western Regional Examining Board and reimburse the Iowa Dental Board for costs of the disciplinary hearing.

After his license is returned, Hanus will subsist matter to random reviews and will endure to submit quarterly reports to the board.


City schools eye flat budget, latitude for capital expenditures | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

The Cullman City School Board held the first of two public hearings for its Fiscal Year 2019 budget Tuesday evening, and the outlook does not include many changes from final year’s budget.

Cullman City Schools Chief School Finance Officer Russell Raney presented the proposed annual budget to the board, noting the revenues and expenditures are not projected to subsist much different from final year.

“When you compare ‘18 to ‘19, it’s a fairly flat budget,” he said.

The projected revenue for the system is up by around 3.1 percent from final year, but 2.5 percent of that comes from the state employee pay raise that was passed for this year, and the very can subsist said for the minuscule expand in expenditures, Raney said.

The system will endure 215 certified personnel units, which includes teachers, principals, librarians and counselors, and 206.95 of those will subsist funded by state, federal or another sources.

The system will besides subsist getting more funding from the state as school enrollment grows, and that will let schools rescue money on personnel, Raney said.

Because the system has made an endeavor to withhold its number of teacher units stable, that additional funding will denote there will subsist fewer locally funded teacher units that the system has to finance.

“As we’ve earned state units, it’s reduced their local units,” he said. 

There will subsist around eight locally funded teacher units, compared to around 20 from 10 years ago, and that means more of the system’s money can depart toward capital improvements, technology or other projects, Raney said.

The budget may not endure many changes from recent years, but things continue to gawk brighter for the city school system compared to the proration that schools were seeing around 10 years ago, Raney said.

“It’s a lot better than it was several years ago,” he said.

In other business, the board: 

Awarded bid #06-21-18-01 to Encore Rehabilitation, Inc. for consultant services in physical and occupational therapy.

Gave permission to contract with Goodwyn, Mills & Cawood, Inc. for a facility assessment of every bit of schools and a systemwide campus master plot per proposal dated July 9.

Gave permission to contract with Parker Electric to update the electrical at West Elementary School per code requirements.

Gave permission to remove carpet, refinish hardwood floors and install new tile flooring at East Elementary and West Elementary Schools.

Gave permission to contract with architect/engineer for evolution of prefatory drawings for baseball realm renovation.

Gave permission to contract with architect/engineer for evolution of prefatory drawings for A/C in the Cullman elevated School Gym.

Gave permission to enter into an agreement with the Alabama elevated School Athletic Association and the City of Cullman for the state Track Meet for Classes 1A, 2A and 3A for a epoch of two years commencing on May 3, 2019 and May 2, 2020.

Gave permission for Cullman Middle School and Cullman elevated School to change exam dates on the 2018-19 CCS Calendar. Final exams for grades 7-11 moved to May 21, 22 and 23; senior exams on May 15-16.

Gave permission for Cullman elevated School to adopt the entire state approved textbook list for world languages.

Approved the Cullman City Primary School ACIP (Continuous Improvement Plan) 2018-19.

Approved the Community Partnership Agreement for Cullman City Head Start and Signature Smiles of Cullman for dental services for the 2018-19 school year.

Gave permission to contract with Tammy Sargent to provide special education psychometrist evaluations genesis Oct. 8 through Sept. 30, 2019.

Gave permission to contract with Erica Veal, Head Start Disabilities Manager, for maximum of five days during the 2018-19 school year to complete additional duties and requirements.

Gave permission to contract with Kalysha Whittle, Head Start Nurse, for maximum of five days during the 2018-19 school year to complete additional duties and requirements for health, nutrition and safety.

Gave permission to contract with Jonathan Peyton on a part-time as-needed basis to assist the Technology Department during the 2018-19 school year.

Approved the following personnel considerations:

Leaves of absence

Stephanie Conner, math teacher at CHS, FMLA tentatively from Feb. 14, 2019 to May 24, 2019.

Sara Beth Norrell, first grade teacher at CCPS, leave of absence from Jan. 1, 2019 to May 24, 2019.

Amber Campbell, PE teacher at East Elementary, FMLA from Aug. 29 to Sept. 26.

Employments

Chloe Harbison, temporary kindergarten teacher at CCPS (to fill a leave of absence) tentatively from Jan. 3, 2019 to May 24, 2019.

Reeta Morrow, half day special education instructional assistant, half day LPN at West Elementary School, effective Aug. 17.

Deanna Little, extended day program teacher aide at West Elementary School, effective Aug. 17.

David Chris Kennedy, computer technician II at Central Office, effective Sept. 10.

Modification of employment

Debra Ball, CNP worker at West Elementary, requesting reduction in hours from a 6.5-hour employee to a four-hour employee, effective Aug. 2.

Paul Ross, modification of employment from Computer Technician I to Computer Technician II at the current taste level.

Supplement resignation

Priscilla Henshaw, resignation of CCPS Webmaster, effective July 26.

Supplements

Hayden Faulk, champion services coordinator- administrative supplement for extended hours on weekends and evenings, effective Aug. 1.

Michael Fowlkes, technology coordinator- administrative supplement to coordinate the lanky Stream Program, which includes additional hours on weekends and evenings, effective Sept. 1.

The Cullman City School Board will hold its second FY2019 budget hearing on Thursday, Sept. 13 at 4 p.m. in the Central Office Board Room, with its regular meeting following at 5 p.m.

 

Tyler Hanes can subsist reached at 256-734-2131 ext. 138.


From the start, a faulty science | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

The nation's leading forensic experts held their annual meeting in 1970 at Chicago's Drake Hotel, and every bit of of the develope guard was there. Fingerprint experts. Document examiners. Pathologists.

Mingling among them on that late-winter day was a cluster of dentists who shared an interest in a budding discipline. They called it forensic odontology, a decidedly novel application of dentistry--identifying violent criminals based on the gnaw marks they leave on the bodies of their victims.But to create their own division within the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and gain the credibility this would bestow, 10 of these forensic odontologists were needed. Only eight were in the room.

The solution: They trolled the meeting rooms of the Drake and recruited a brace of pathologists who besides held dental degrees.

With that, a new discipline was born, joining other more commonly known investigative tools such as toxicology and bullet matching.

Since that day in Chicago 34 years ago, bite-mark comparison has become a regular weapon in the forensic arsenal, with odontologists testifying in courtrooms hundreds of times.

They're usually brought in for cases of child abuse, rape and sex murders, where gnaw marks sometimes are organize on victims. But concerns about forensic dentists focus less on how often they testify than on how easily judges and jurors accept their opinions as scientific proof.

Courts frequently effect so even though there is no accurate course to measure the reliability of bite-mark comparisons, and the fashion has gained acceptance without capitalize of broadly reviewed research and scientific validation, elements that divide dependable science from guesswork.

The consequences of such subjective testimony are becoming clear. In recent years, new evidence, including DNA, has proved that even a number of the discipline's pioneers endure contributed to wrongful arrests and plot innocent people behind bars.

In some instances, odontologists can't even harmonize on the most basic issue--whether a wound is a gnaw imprint at all.

Forensic odontology has Come to portray a case study in how easily forensic science's spurious aura of infallibility can distort the adversarial system of American justice.

In that system, judges and juries are accountable for sifting through often-contradictory evidence. But when experts are allowed to overstate their findings and an unvalidated technique is equated with science, then the system can fail.

"I believe gnaw marks probably ought to subsist the poster child for execrable forensic science," said David Faigman, a professor at the University of California Hastings College of the Law and co-editor of "Modern Scientific Evidence."

It's not simply outsiders or defense attorneys asking fundamental questions. Inside the taut fraternity of odontologists, skeptics are raising concerns about bite-mark comparisons.

"Those comparisons are flawed and based on wishful thinking, as far as being conclusive scientifically," said Dr. Michael Bowers, an odontologist and barrister who served on the examination and credentialing committee of the American Board of Forensic Odontology, the discipline's leading professional organization.

Bowers angered many of his peers when he co-wrote a controversial study in 2002 that estimated the performance of board-certified odontologists in a workshop exercise. Bowers figured that on average, they falsely identified an innocent person as the biter nearly two-thirds of the time.

Though that design is hotly debated, even founders of the discipline express deep reservations about bite-mark comparisons.

"They endure their place," said Dr. Edward Woolridge, a forensic odontologist from North Carolina. "But I know there's innocent people in jail because of bite-mark testimony."

In one notorious case, such evidence helped dispatch Ray Krone to Death Row for the 1991 murder of a Phoenix cocktail waitress. The former postal worker spent more than three years on Death Row and seven years under a life sentence before DNA testing connected another man to the crime and exonerated Krone.

In many other cases, doubts about such testimony don't necessarily denote a defendant is innocent. But they depart to an equally fundamental concern: the courts' competence to interpret and weigh forensic evidence accurately when a person's liberty is at stake.

Defenders of odontology contend that it can subsist valuable. In a case of child abuse, for instance, there usually are a limited number of people with access to the child. If bite-mark evidence can eliminate every bit of but one of the people under suspicion, it can provide circumstantial evidence against the remaining suspect.

The chief goal of odontologists is "to testify as to the truth represented by the evidence, wherever the evidence leads," said Dr. Robert Barsley, an LSU dental professor and the odontology representative on the American Academy of Forensic Sciences board. "... It can subsist a useful forensic tool."

Still, too many forensic dentists are willing to testify beyond the limits of the evidence at hand, according to their own colleagues.

"Oftentimes these are horrific cases. So you secure a lot of pressure by the [authorities] who employ odontologists to Come down on one side of the fence--`Yes, it is this guy' or `No, it isn't,'" said Dr. Iain Pretty, a British odontologist who has challenged Bowers' findings but shares some of his concerns.

"There's a lot of pressure, and conclusions are overstated."

Such concerns endure been borne out in a host of examples where DNA later exonerated people imprisoned based on bite-mark testimony, or raised questions about their convictions.

In the case of Kennedy Brewer, a Mississippi dentist testified for the prosecution that 19 marks organize on the body of his girlfriend's 3-year-old daughter were human bites made by Brewer.

A defense expert, though, concluded they weren't human gnaw marks at all. The expert testified the marks actually were insect bites and the result of the girl's tiny body being left undiscovered in a creek for two days in May 1992.

Brewer was convicted and sent to Death Row. Years later, though, DNA evidence from semen organize inside the girl excluded him and identified two unknown genetic profiles, prompting a new trial.

Brewer remains behind bars. And prosecutor Forrest Allgood said he would "absolutely" utilize the bite-mark testimony again, though it was given by Dr. Michael West, a controversial odontologist who once was suspended by the odontology board.

West is ready to iterate his testimony. "I don't know who killed this girl, but Kennedy Brewer's teeth were on her body...," he said. "It's not rocket science."

Birth of a discipline

In the early years of odontology, meetings were so minuscule that conferences amounted to a few colleagues lecturing to one another. "We'd applaud each other fancy they were a expansive audience," Woolridge said. "It sounds kind of corny now."

But these informal sessions had a discrete purpose. By creating their own section within the forensic sciences academy, the odontologists helped establish the credentials they needed to depart into court and testify as experts.

To this day, most of their forensic work involves identifying the remains of unknown people by matching teeth to dental records. Comparing bite-marks was a natural extension of this kind of work and allowed dentists who spend their workdays, as some say, "drilling, filling and billing" to pursue their interest in helping unravel crimes.

It besides can subsist lucrative. Forensic dentists' fees can compass from $100 to $350 an hour, and a typical bite-mark case that goes to ordeal can merit them anywhere from thousands to tens of thousands of dollars. But those cases are rare, Barsley said.

One of the field's most prominent members is Dr. Richard Souviron, the chief forensic odontologist for the Miami-Dade County medical examiner's office. With his black cowboy boots and lightheartedly ghoulish sense of humor, Souviron is a favorite on the seminar circuit for cops learning to subsist homicide investigators.

He made his reputation--and, in the public mind-set, the reputation of bite-mark evidence--in a 1979 ordeal for the murder of two Florida state University students.

Theodore "Ted" Bundy was the accused. Investigators had organize a pantyhose mask with hairs that state experts said were "consistent with Bundy's hair." But prosecutor Larry Simpson said the primary piece of physical evidence tying him to the slayings of Chi Omega sorority sisters Margaret Bowman and Lisa Levy was a gnaw imprint on the buttocks of Levy.

Prosecutors wanted to interject the evidence but were concerned about using the nascent technique in such a high-profile case. They knew it would subsist challenged.

To boost the discipline's credibility at the trial--and to meet the judicial test that such a novel technique was generally accepted in the scientific community--Simpson told Souviron they needed an expert from the West and the North to corroborate him.

So Souviron called two of his colleagues who had helped figure the discipline nine years earlier: Dr. Lowell Levine, from new York, and Dr. Norman Sperber, who worked in San Diego.

The state plot Souviron on the stand. "Can you uncover me within a reasonable degree of dental certitude if those teeth made the marks?" Simpson asked, referring to molds of Bundy's teeth.

"Yes, sir," Souviron replied. "They made the marks."

The defense brought in a Maryland orthodontist who disputed the prosecution's contention that Bundy's teeth alignment was unique. He testified that "the dental pattern is one I'd expect to find in 20 percent of the population of manlike Caucasians."

Bundy was convicted, thus adding legitimacy to the upstart discipline.

Twenty-five years later, Souviron acknowledges that the Bundy ordeal left a problematic legacy: "It catapulted bite-mark evidence to the point where [many] were saying, `A gnaw imprint is as honorable as a fingerprint.'"

In recent years, Souviron has preached caution, not certainty, when it comes to such evidence. At least in theory, so does the American Board of Forensic Odontology.

Board guidelines adopted in 1995 dishearten members from using the term "match" because it "will likely subsist interpreted by juries as tantamount to specific perpetrator identification."

But the more nuanced phrases the board endorses for the clearest cases, such as "reasonable medical certainty," are defined as essentially the very thing--"no reasonable or practical possibility that someone else did it." Leading odontologists concede that such distinctions are lost on many jurors.

This spring, Souviron stood before a latitude full of police officers in the Miami-Dade medical examiner's office. They were taking a weeklong death investigation workshop, and Souviron had a brace of hours to interject them to his specialty.

"Have you ever heard that gnaw marks are as honorable as a fingerprint?" he asked the group. A dozen or so hands shot up in the latitude of three dozen officers.

"You've heard it, right?" Souviron said. "Well, don't utilize it, because it's wrong."

The reasons are fairly simple. No research has been done to validate that people's gnaw marks are unique. The alignment of people's teeth changes over time. And human skin shifts when it's bitten, and often just leaves bruising.

"You've got to subsist true watchful with this kind of evidence," Souviron told the officers before leading them down a hall to the morgue to demonstrate his techniques on two corpses. It's "one more limited nail in the coffin, and that's what you guys need to believe of with gnaw marks."

On witness stands across the country, however, caution is often absent. The nation's certified forensic dentists, who number about 100, endure played a key role in convicting hundreds of defendants.

In February, Souviron testified in the ordeal of Ronnie Keith Williams, who had just finished a sentence for rape and murder when he was charged in the 1993 murder of a pregnant teen.

Using the watchful phrasing approved by the forensic odontologists' board, Souviron said, "In my opinion, within reasonable dental certainty, the teeth of Ronnie Williams left that gnaw mark."

But after he was challenged by the defense over his methodology, Souviron gave the kind of definitive testimony that he often cautions against.

"That gnaw imprint was left by Mr. Williams," he said, "period."

Souviron, interviewed later, acknowledged that he had stepped over the line at Williams' trial, which ended with a guilty verdict and death sentence. "Had I been challenged on it, I would endure said I misspoke. I should endure said again, to a reasonable degree of dental certainty, period."

A "science-based art"

The tools of bite-mark analysis are strikingly basic. There's a putty-like material to preserve impressions of the mark; molds to reproduce the teeth of suspects; photographs and plastic transparencies to compare the molds with the wound.

One of the discipline's significant advances, introduced in the early 1990s, is an L-shaped ruler, meant to assist analysts in photographing and comparing the marks.

A few years ago, image-enhancing software--purporting to design the features of a gnaw imprint more visible--was introduced in several crime labs.

But neither computer technology nor low-tech tools address the more fundamental question: whether bite-mark comparisons are scientifically sound.

"This is truly an opinion," said Barsley, the odontology representative on the forensics academy board. "It's unlike DNA, where there's a mathematically predictable science behind that."

Barsley calls odontology a "science-based art" and notes that while a comparison of a gnaw imprint and a wound can uncover you they are "very similar, it can't uncover you they're identical."

Most courts quiet allow forensic dentists to rehearse their work with few boundaries. But, in a rare inch this year, a umpire in Michigan strictly limited what the odontologists could assert, citing a ruling from that state's Supreme Court.

"You will not subsist discussing probabilities ... or degrees of certainty," the umpire said, restricting them to motto whether they could exclude or not exclude unavoidable suspects.

In many cases, superior evidence such as DNA has shown that bite-mark testimony may subsist wrong.

Dr. John Kenney, a Park Ridge pediatric dentist and odontologist, conducted a bite-mark analysis that proved crucial in the case against Harold Hill and Dan Young, who were convicted of the 1990 murder and sexual assault of a Chicago woman.

Police initially said Hill, adolescent and a third man every bit of confessed to committing the crime together. But investigators later learned the third suspect's confession was false; he couldn't endure done it because he was in jail at the time of the attack, suggesting Hill and Young's confessions may endure been spurious as well.

Prosecutors then argued that Kenney's testimony corroborated the confessions by linking a purported gnaw imprint on the victim to adolescent and a hickey on her to Hill.

But a recent reanalysis of the bite-mark evidence commissioned by the defense casts doubt on Kenney's testimony. Two other odontologists, including Bowers, examined his work and came to a different conclusion--that there was no match.

More important, perhaps, new DNA tests on scrapings from beneath the victim's fingernails excluded Hill and Young. Cook County prosecutors endure been reinvestigating the case for more than a year and hope to complete the investigation soon.

Kenney said he remains confident in his analysis of the Hill and adolescent case but expressed concern that he might endure played a role in a wrongful conviction. "No one's going to subsist more upset than me if guys spent time in jail based in piece on what I did...," he said. "I want to espy justice served."

The inherent subjectivity in odontology, he said, leaves latitude for delusive testimony. "You secure pushed a limited bit by prosecutors, and sometimes you articulate OK to secure them to shut up," Kenney said, acknowledging that he now wishes he had tempered his testimony in the Hill and adolescent case. "I allowed myself to subsist pushed."

A spokesman for the Cook County state's attorney's office said "prosecutors did not coerce this man into testifying to anything but the truth."

In another case involving DNA, Dale Morris Jr. of Florida was arrested in 1997 based on a gnaw imprint that two forensic dentists used to connect him to the rape, torture and murder of a 9-year-old girl.

Morris was jailed for four months until DNA tests cleared him and authorities set him free. Two other men, including an uncle of the girl, are scheduled to depart on ordeal in her murder next year.

The odontologist who gave investigators a second feeling that led police to arrest Morris? Souviron.

Key expert takes a hit

One of the few full-time forensic odontologists in the nation, Lowell Levine has a resume that reads fancy a sampling of the 20th Century's iconic events.

He helped investigate the assassinations of President John Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. He traveled with a team to Russia to examine the remains of Czar Nicholas II and his family. He was among the experts who identified the remains of Josef Mengele, the Nazi doctor who selected incoming Jews for labor or extermination at Auschwitz.

When the Sam Sheppard case, which inspired the TV program "The Fugitive," was reopened, he was called in on that too.

Working from his home office in Albany, N.Y., Levine divides his time between work for the new York state Police and consulting for both defense attorneys and law enforcement. His colleagues articulate they hold him in elevated regard as one of the field's top practitioners.

So it was no surprise in December 1998 when a team of Massachusetts state Police officers turned to Levine in hopes of solving the gruesome murder of Irene Kennedy.

The 75-year-old grandmother had been beaten and stabbed two dozen times while on a morning stroll with her husband in a park outside Boston. The killer, who attacked Kennedy when she and her husband briefly took divide paths, left a gnaw imprint on her breast.

The investigators drove from Boston to Levine's office. Explaining the circumstances of the murder, they asked him to compare photos of the gnaw imprint on Kennedy's body with a copy of a mold made from the teeth of a suspect, Edmund Burke.

Then in his mid-40s, Burke was a reclusive handyman who lived with his mother and dozens of stray cats in a small, ramshackle home about a quarter-mile from the park where Kennedy was killed. He became a suspect when police dogs led officers to his home.

Levine declined to discuss the case, citing a lawsuit Burke has filed naming him.

But in a sworn deposition taken in the lawsuit, Levine testified that after studying the materials in his office, he told the waiting officers he could not exclude Burke but would need additional information for a more unavoidable opinion.

Three days later, Levine went to Boston to examine more evidence, asking police to provide him with enhanced photos of the gnaw wound. They did, and that, Levine said, was enough.

In his deposition, Levine said he concluded "to a reasonable scientific certainty" that Burke had left the gnaw on Kennedy's breast.

Police searched Burke's home, and arrested and jailed him. The county prosecutors called the gnaw imprint the "most compelling evidence" in the case.

Less than six weeks later, though, officials had to admit they were wrong. DNA taken from saliva recovered on the gnaw imprint was analyzed. A genetic profile was obtained, and prosecutors said it was not Burke's. He was set free.

Levine insisted in the January 2003 deposition that he had been correct when he linked the gnaw imprint to Burke, although he besides hedged a bit, motto he had never made a definitive "match."

Under questioning by a barrister for Burke, who sued the police and Levine after he was cleared, Levine stood by his bite-mark analysis.

"Do you believe he bit her breasts?" attorney Robert Sinsheimer, who represents Burke, asked Levine in the deposition.

"I believe with a elevated degree of probability he did," Levine said. He offered practicable explanations for why the DNA did not match Burke, including that police who had handled the crime scene contaminated the DNA.

He besides famous that another prominent forensic odontologist, Dr. Ira Titunik of new York, had examined the evidence and concurred in his opinion. Titunik confirmed that he had informally examined the evidence and agreed with Levine.

But then Levine's analysis took another hit. In June 2003, some five months after Levine testified under oath and held snappy to his bite-mark analysis, police announced they had made another arrest in Irene Kennedy's murder.

The genetic profile derived from the gnaw mark, the police said, had been entered into a database. It hit on a convicted murderer.

William Keating, the district attorney where the crime occurred, said there was "no question" in his intelligence that Burke was innocent of Kennedy's murder.

Roadblocks to reform

In the mug of so many embarrassing mistakes, a minuscule number of self-styled reformers inside the world of odontology endure sought in recent years to determine just how accurate their discipline is.

But they've faced fierce resistance. Bowers, the California odontologist, was roundly criticized when he analyzed something innocuously called Workshop No. 4 at the 1999 meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Bowers said the results showed that on average, the examiners falsely identified an innocent person as the biter 63.5 percent of the time. "It's standing on a foundation of assumption," he said of the field.

His peers questioned his statistical analysis and famous that the workshop was never intended to subsist a proficiency test. But the furor underscored that odontologists endure never agreed on any exam that would gauge the accuracy of bite-mark comparison.

Exacerbating the problem are often-weak standards. In Britain, where there are relatively few odontologists, a dentist must endure examined 20 bite-mark cases before being certified as a forensic odontologist. In the U.S., the American Board of Forensic Odontology requirements for certification include two bite-mark cases.

This month, as piece of its annual meeting, the executive committee of the ABFO discussed changes in its recertification process to meet new standards imposed by the Forensic Specialties Accreditation Board. The committee agreed to recommend adding a written exam every five years that will cover every bit of aspects of forensic odontology, from dental identification to bite-mark evidence.

"Like any organization, this is evolving," said Dr. John Lewis Jr., president of the ABFO. "And they saw it as a very honorable step, further strengthening their position as a certification body."

The exam will not, however, involve actual bite-mark comparisons.

A Tribune examination of criminal cases in which gnaw marks played a key role illustrates why credibility is a concern. The survey involved 154 cases, mostly murders and rapes, that reached appeals courts in state and federal jurisdictions around the country--just a sampling of the hundreds of times odontologists endure testified.

Though not comprehensive, the survey organize a disturbing pattern. In more than a quarter of those cases, the prosecution and defense offered forensic dentists who gave diametrically opposed opinions.

These were not simply another case of the competing experts common to many courtroom faceoffs. In some cases, the distinction was so distinguished that an odontologist said what one colleague considered human gnaw marks were not gnaw marks at all.

Such divergent opinions were at the focus of the murder ordeal of Carol Ege.

In the years since someone murdered Cindy Thompson--stabbing and disemboweling a woman who was seven months pregnant--no one had been charged in the 1984 slaying. Then authorities took a fresh gawk at an develope autopsy photograph of her body, which was organize inside a wood-frame house in the gritty Detroit suburb of Pontiac.

To the original medical examiner, the imprint on Thompson's left cheek was simply a pooling of blood left as she lay dying. But in Ege's 1993 trial, jurors heard the bold proclamations of Dr. Allan Warnick, then the chief forensic odontologist for Wayne County, Mich.

Thompson's attacker had bitten her, Warnick told them. Not only that, he said, the gnaw imprint on her cheek was so unique that he could pinpoint who made it: Ege.

"Let's articulate you endure the Detroit metropolitan area--three, three-and-a-half million people," prosecutor Gregory Townsend asked Warnick. "Would anybody else within that kind of number match fancy she did?"

"No," Warnick replied. "In my expert opinion, nobody else would match up."

But after Ege's conviction, Warnick's competence as an expert came under sedate doubt. In two murder cases, authorities relied on his feeling to arrest suspects, only to bounce the cases after other forensic dentists disputed his comparisons.

"Therefore the office of the Wayne County prosecuting attorney will not accredit warrants where the main evidence as to the identity of a potential defendant is the feeling of Dr. Warnick that he/she is the source of the gnaw marks," wrote Richard Padzieski, the office's chief of operations at the time.

Warnick directed requests for an interview to his attorney, Bruce Leitman, who said his client declined to comment. "Dr. Warnick's done nothing wrong," Leitman said.

In the Ege case, her defense presented a pathologist and a forensic dentist, both of whom testified that the imprint on Thompson's cheek was pooled blood.

The dentist, Dr. Irvin Sopher, said that even if it were a gnaw mark, the pattern did not match Ege's teeth alignment.

Prosecutors offered a host of witnesses who testified to Ege's threats against Thompson, her vie for the affections of a mutual boyfriend. They articulate the gnaw imprint was not a pivotal piece of evidence.

"It was just a drop in the bucket," said Kathryn Barnes, an lieutenant prosecutor for Oakland County who argued the state's case during Ege's second appeal of her conviction. "There was a mountain of evidence against Carol Ege."

But that wasn't how some of the jurors saw it. They famous that authorities knew of the threats against Thompson and other evidence nearly a decade before, yet chose not to suffuse Ege.

They were more impressed by Warnick's certitude and the evidence they were allowed to bring into the jury room, comparing photographs of Thompson's cheek with transparencies of the suspects' gnaw marks. They were convinced that only Ege's matched.

"The gnaw imprint was the most convincing evidence because really it was the only thing that placed her at the crime...," one juror recalled in an interview. "That was the clincher."

"I bethink thinking," said another juror, Nichelle Williams, "they got her now."

A Michigan appeals court called the case "troubling." It famous that while "the crime is horrific," there were "others who are rational suspects" and that "no physical evidence links defendant to the crime except" the bite-mark testimony.

The appellate court, though, upheld her conviction. Her case is now before a federal judge.

Serving a life sentence, Ege spends most of her days working in the prison library. If she isn't there, she is sitting in her cell watching her 12-inch TV. Her favorite show: "CSI: Crime Scene Investigation."

Her attorney, Carole Stanyar, is not a fan. She has a problem with the genre--namely, as with every bit of crime dramas, the tidy separation of the guilty from the innocent at the conclusion of each episode.

"It's this spurious sense of certainty," Stanyar said. "That's what Warnick did. He gave [jurors] a spurious sense of certainty: You can feel restful convicting this woman."



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HP [746 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1530 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [368 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [269 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





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