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70-355 Universal Windows Platform - App Data, Services, and Coding Patters

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70-355 exam Dumps Source : Universal Windows Platform - App Data, Services, and Coding Patters

Test Code : 70-355
Test name : Universal Windows Platform - App Data, Services, and Coding Patters
Vendor name : Microsoft
free pdf : 47 actual Questions

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Microsoft Universal Windows Platform -

Microsoft's home windows File supervisor now runs on sum windows 10 contraptions | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Microsoft's Windows File Manager now runs on  sum Windows 10 devices SAN FRANCISCO: Microsoft has launched its original home windows File supervisor as a yardstick home windows Platform (UWP) app within the Microsoft back and has made it obtainable for sum devices operating home windows 10.

home windows File supervisor is Microsoft's graphical consumer interface (GUI) during which wait clients might behold and manipulate files and folders on home windows computers allowing wait users to circulation, reproduction, rename, print, delete and search information and folders.

The UWP version of windows File supervisor is attainable to be installed on notebook, cellular, surface Hub and HoloLens, the Microsoft back checklist reads, which is only partially authentic, Softmedia information said on Saturday.

"in line with the official system requirements, you deserve to be working at least windows 10 build 16299, which isn't accessible on cellular instruments, so listing telephones as a supported platform does not invent a much deal sense," the record noted.

The project, maintained on Microsoft's net-based mostly internet hosting carrier - GitHub - has been made available for download and compiled by anybody on windows 10.

Microsoft is additionally allowing clients to contribute with ideas and counsel the usage of the GitHub web page.

"The windows File supervisor lives once more and runs as a local x86 and x64 computer app on sum currently supported edition of windows, together with home windows 10. I welcome your innovations, comments and guidance," the GitHub web page reads.

The proper windows File supervisor first debuted as portion of home windows three.0.

historical windows File supervisor now attainable as UWP app in Microsoft back | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Microsoft has attach the windows File manager, which changed into in home windows on account that windows three.0 on the Microsoft store, so it will possibly used as an app in windows 10. The File manager is launched as a so-called conventional home windows Platform app.

up to now, Microsoft already published the source code on the windows File supervisor on open-supply hosting platform Github. This allowed users to repair bugs and to create their personal version of the windows File manager.

Now, anyway publishing the supply code, Microsoft has additionally published the windows File manager within the Microsoft save.

home windows File supervisor is attainable for home windows 10 construct 16299 or later, home windows 10 cell, floor Hub and the HoloLens.

We don't exhibit remark's on information reports, in its region you're very welcome to be portion of the discussion on this topic on their forum.

Microsoft brings Win32 laptop apps to home windows combined fact | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The home windows blended fact journey in home windows 10 means that you can placed on a VR headset and engage with apps, video games, and video clips in a extra immersive pass than you may wall gazing a video parade or computer reveal. but what if you just want to finish some web searching, try a PowerPoint presentation, or hearken to tune with out removing your headset?

home windows mixed reality already means that you can elude time-honored windows Platform apps downloaded from the Microsoft shop. And now Microsoft has introduced it’s working on including aid for Win32 computing device apps (relatively a generous deal the comfort that you would be able to install and elude on a windows pc).

An early edition of the feature is already accessible in home windows 10 Insider Preview construct 18329, and it can invent its solution to sum users later this yr.

Microsoft says Win32 apps “similar to Spotify, Paint.internet, and visual Studio Code” now travail in windows combined truth… however back is still a piece in evolution and the event can be buggy.

To launch a Win32 app, Microsoft says you open the Pins Panel, disappear to the record of sum apps, after which you’ll behold a folder referred to as “classic Apps (Beta) that may still comprise an inventory of sum computer apps installed in your computing device.

different adjustments in windows 10 developed 18329 encompass:

  • a listing of desirable apps may be pinned to the top of the search window
  • Keyboard aid for ADLaM and Osage
  • up-to-date Mail and Calendar apps with aid for darkish mode and default font selections
  • quite a lot of malicious program fixes
  • These and other updates may still be included within the next predominant unencumber of home windows 10, which is at present referred to as 19H1, indicating that it’ll be purchasable within the first half of 2019.

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    Universal Windows Platform - App Data, Services, and Coding Patters

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    Inside the Universal Windows Platform Bridges | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps


    Inside the Universal Windows Platform Bridges

    Microsoft's four-fold path leading to a singular coding platform is becoming a actual possibility.

    Astoria. Islandwood. Centennial. Westminster. not anyone of these project names Have any connection to one another, as far as they can expose -- except that each is a project names for four Universal Windows Platform Bridge tools that can be used to develop Windows 10 apps from specific source code environments for the newer Windows Store. The eventual aim is for those apps to be able to elude on any Windows figure factor, from phones to desktops to devices running the Windows Holographic Platform environment.

    The tools were announced at Build on Wednesday in a segment of the keynote featuring Microsoft Terry Myerson, who quickly demonstrated each of the features.

    Project Astoria is the Android runtime bridge, which can be used from the Android Studio IDE to refactor Android app code for the Windows 10 platform. It will comprehend a Windows emulator, and is supposititious to allow for debugging and testing of apps from either the Android IDE or Visual Studio IDE. (Coincidentally, Astoria was used in the past for Windows Communications Framework Data Services, according to this Wikipedia reference page; it's not uncommon for Microsoft to reuse a name.)

    In similar fashion. Project Islandwood toolkit is an iOS bridge for developing from Objective-C. Myerson demonstrated some of the progress his group has made with the tool, showing the talent to debug and test Xcode from within the Visual Studio IDE.

    Project Centennial is aimed at Windows developers who want a shortcut for recasting current .NET and Win32 Windows apps for the newer Windows Store.

    Finally, Project Westminster is aimed at Website publishers who want to package up their sites for delivery via the Windows Store. Those apps will be able to pick handicap of Windows APIs, and Website updates are automatically updated without having to republish the package to the Windows Store.

    The tools are currently in preview, and Microsoft is looking for preview developers; to mark up, disappear here. The company plans to deliver them sometime this summer.

    Watch Myerson's demonstration of the bridge tools in this Day 1 keynote; it's at around the 1:46:00 mark. You can too salvage some background on the evolution of the Universal Windows Platform from the Day 1 sessions in this presentation recorded at Build 2015.

    About the Author

    You expose 'Em, Readers: If you've read this far, know that Michael Domingo, Visual Studio Magazine Editor in Chief, is here to serve you, dear readers, and wants to salvage you the information you so richly deserve. What news, content, topics, issues finish you want to behold covered in Visual Studio Magazine? He's listening at

    How to Design aboriginal Mobile Apps | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    UX HowBlockedUnblockFollowFollowing

    Feb 8, 2016

    Apps are a mountainous portion of product and service feel points — and are only growing. Each year users are spending more time on their devices (an medium of 2 hours and 42 minutes per day in 2014) and spend 86% of their time in apps with no signs of slowing down.

    Here is what I Have learned from and with others on how to design aboriginal mobile apps.

    Top 5 Tips for Designing Apps 1) Read the HIG

    Learn the rules from the Human Interface Guidelines (HIG), then device out whether you should demolish them elegantly.

    4) invent it Move

    States, animations and transitions are key distinguishing features of elegant app experiences.

    Create a motion study, scabrous prototype or even better — jump into code and really dig into what makes or breaks an app.

    Material Design with Framer.js 5) Services First

    The trait of aboriginal mobile app experiences are completely intertwined with the services that power them. In order to provide the best front wait app experience, services necessity to be designed, implemented and back data flood based on user necessity and context.

    As a Designer, you necessity to start thinking this pass and connect with your evolution partners on how services are being optimized (or not) for aboriginal mobile apps.

    Native is Not Web

    At first aboriginal and web browser designs look very similar. Many generous design practices and principles from the web apply to aboriginal mobile apps — but there are key differences.

    Inbox Views and Transitions No Pages

    Apps Have states, modes and views and are often enabled and communicated through aboriginal animations.

    This provides much more context in an tang and UI views contingent on a number of conditions.

    Apps should Have elegant seams and smooth transitions, not waiting for page loads.


    The interaction model is fundamentally different on a feel UI device.

    There is no equivalent of rollover or hover on an app and a “right-click” is being explored with functionality like 3DTouch.

    Input / Output

    A mobile app has access to much more than just a screen. For instance, confirmation of an action doesn’t Have to be visual — it could be accomplished with haptic feedback (vibration).

    Potential Inputs include: Camera, GPS, gyroscope, accelerometer, wifi/bluetooth connection, voice, Contact List / Address Book, camera, photo gallery, microphone and more with each fresh device.

    Different Output options comprehend sound, haptic/vibration, notifications and the screen.

    This even of access however comes with the necessity to be responsible:

    Apps are Not Browsers

    In an app, you are designing and pile everything the browser has to finish too — and you don’t salvage things “for free”.

    Github 404 Error Page

    “There are no 404 Errors in Apps” is a favorite proverb of a Technology Director I confederate with.

    When something doesn’t travail on a aboriginal app, the user will constantly search information from themselves:

    “Is it the app, my phone or the connection?”

    As a designer, you necessity to address this and communicate elegantly when things are not optimal or unknown. Additional conditions you necessity to account for on aboriginal mobile apps include:

  • Offline States
  • Intermittent Connectivity
  • Service call Failures (Single or Multiple)
  • Loading (Blocking Loader, Inline or Progressive?)
  • Caching Data (How long should “old” data be kept?)
  • First Time tang (Show a tutorial?)
  • Second Time tang (Don’t disclose a tutorial?)
  • When an app is brought into the Foreground
  • When an app is switched into the Background
  • Live and Die by the Store

    Apps are like movies and music — they Have ratings and reviews that are broadcast to anyone who might reflect of downloading it.

    Often times a user will already Have an impression and seen comments before experiencing it for themselves.

    Real reviews from the App Store

    Reviews, Ratings and Comments will often give feedback about network, service or content issues that you necessity to proactively account for in the design.

    Because of this, apps are more faultfinding to test and depending on how they are built, can be very difficult to update quickly when a bug or issue is found — and before it is broadcast to everyone else.

    iOS and Android Differences

    Over time the, the mountainous two platforms Have converged in some ways and taken different and drastic turns in other directions.

    Be mindful of these key part differences when designing a aboriginal mobile app for one, the other or both.

    1) The Back Button

    I am not talking about Up vs. Back or the feel screen back arrow on apps. I am talking about the actual hardware back button built into Android devices and nowhere to be establish on iOS.

    Be prepared to reply the question at any point in a flood when your developer asks:

    “What happens when I hit the back button on Android?”

    2) Open vs Closed

    The iOS App Store is a very closed marketplace and iOS limits access for Apps to certain device inputs and outputs. Due to the review process for App Store, an App may not be published or released for up to 2 weeks after submission, pending approval.

    The Google Play store is much more open and the platform allows deeper integration into aboriginal input and output methods. There is minimal review process for the Google Play Store and apps are published almost immediately.

    3) Top vs Bottom Screenshots from Facebook on iOS and Android

    Same app, selfsame content and the main navigation is flipped between top and bottom. iOS has a stout preference for main sections of the app in the bottom Tab Bar while Android encourages using the Navigation Drawer and other constructs.

    4) utilize of Screen Real Estate Design Explosions #1 — Mapping on iOS by UX Launchpad

    iOS and Material Design invent different utilize of the canvas or actual estate of the screen. As this breakdown of Apple Maps vs Google Maps shows, Material Design favors Floating Action Buttons and transparency while iOS employs more navigation “stripes” at the top and bottom.

    5) The Guidelines

    Each platform has 3 key principles or themes in the Guidelines, but are emphasized and interpreted in different ways.

    iOS Themes

    DeferenceThe UI helps people understand and interact with the content, but never competes with it.

    ClarityText is legible at every size, icons are precise and lucid, adornments are subtle and appropriate, and a sharpened focus on functionality motivates the design.

    DepthVisual layers and realistic motion impart vitality and heighten people’s delight and understanding.

    Material Principles

    Material is the metaphorA material metaphor is the unifying theory of a rationalized space and a system of motion. The material is grounded in tactile reality, inspired by the study of paper and ink, yet technologically advanced and open to fantasy and magic.

    Bold, graphic, intentionalThe foundational elements of print-based design — typography, grids, space, scale, color, and utilize of imagery — guide visual treatments. These elements finish far more than gratify the eye. They create hierarchy, meaning, and focus.

    Motion provides meaningMotion respects and reinforces the user as the prime mover. Primary user actions are inflection points that initiate motion, transforming the all design.

    Learn by Doing

    Best pass to learn how to design aboriginal mobile apps is to design them.

    The easiest region to start is with a pre-existing GUI template, like the iOS Template from Facebook:

    I mentioned earlier reverse engineering your favorite app.

    Go ahead… literally trail aboriginal app patterns to alleviate build a design language of what works and understand the foundational elements.

    It can be a mountainous jump to disappear from designing to even dabbling in code, but it is worth it. When you walk in someone’s shoes (or tools) you acquire:

  • Empathy for evolution (and users)
  • Intuitively understand each operating system and the standards
  • Truly learn by doing
  • If you are really hesitant about jumping into aboriginal mobile app development — there are number of easier prototyping tools out there that simulate the experience.

    I try and walk the walk — this is a sample Calculator template I followed and connected in Xcode back in the day:

    If you are not jumpy off yet, I highly embolden taking the profound dive into designing and coding your own app. Design + Code is the next step, starting from design tools like Sketch and then implementing in the latest evolution tool.

    The best pass to learn is to create something that you’d want to use. Guidelines are most useful while you’re directly manipulating results. — Meng To

    Looking for More?

    Access an always updated list of the best aboriginal mobile app prototyping tools along with top UX design portfolio articles, services, products and UX Design resources at UX How.

    (Originally posted at UX How on November 23, 2015)

    The MVVM Pattern – Introduction | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Model-View-ViewModel (from now on, just MVVM) is a “love/hate” topic when it comes to Universal Windows app development. If you Have never used it and try it for the first time, you’ll probably find yourself a microscopic bit confused, since it’s a completely different approach than the yardstick one based on the code behind. On the other hand, if you’re a long time MVVM user, you probably won’t be able to create a fresh project using any other approach.

    This is the intuition I’ve decided to write the following chain of posts. What’s MVVM? Why is it so widely adpoted when it comes to Universal Windows apps evolution and, generally speaking, by any XAML based technology?

    I hope that by the wait of the journey, you’ll find answers to sum of your questions and be able to start using the MVVM pattern in your apps without being jumpy anymore.

    The MVVM Pattern

    The first thing you Have to understand is that MVVM isn’t a framework or a library, but a pattern. It isn’t a set of APIs or methods, but a pass to define the architecture of an application. You’ve probably already heard about MVVM Light or Caliburn Micro, but you don’t Have to muddle them with MVVM; they’re tools that helps developers to adopt the MVVM pattern, they don’t depict the pattern itself.

    The purpose of a pattern is to alleviate developers to define the architecture of an application. Why is it so considerable to finish it? Why can’t they simply continue to develop an application in the pass they are used to, which is writing sum the code in the code-behind class? The yardstick approach is very quick and simple to understand, but it has many limitations when it comes to more complex projects that necessity to be maintained over time. The intuition is that the code-behind class has a very tense dependency with the XAML page. Consequently, most of the code can’t be isolated and they wait up mixing trade logic and the presentation layer.

    In the long run, the code behind approach introduces many problems:

  • It’s more complicated to maintain the code and evolve the project. Every time they necessity to add a fresh feature or resolve a bug, it’s difficult to understand where precisely they necessity to finish it, since there isn’t a transparent distinction between the various components of the app. This becomes even more genuine if they necessity to resume working on a project which has been “on hold” for a long time.
  • It’s complex to discharge unit testing. When it comes to complex projects, many developers and companies are adopting the unit test approach, which is a pass to discharge automatic tests that validate wee pieces of code. This pass it becomes easier to evolve the project: every time they add a fresh feature or they change some existing code, they can easily verify if the travail we’ve done has broken the already existing features of the app. However, having a tense dependency between the logic and the user interface makes it nearly impossible to write unit tests, since the code isn’t isolated.
  • It’s complex to design the user interface: since there’s a tense relationship between the user interface and the trade logic, it isn’t workable for a designer to focus on the user interface without knowing sum the implementation details behind it. Questions like “Where is the data coming from? A database? A cloud service?” shouldn’t be asked by a designer.
  • The goal of the MVVM pattern is to “break” this stout connection between the code behind and the user interface, making it easier for a developer to understand what the different components of the application are. More precisely, it’s fundamental to distinguish the components which pick pervade of the trade logic and the ones that wield the data presentation.

    The name of the pattern comes from the fact that the project is split into three different components, which we’re now going to explore in details.

    The Model

    The model is the component of the application that defines and handles sum the basic entities of the application. The goal of this layer is to remove any dependency from the pass the data is represented. Ideally, you should be able to pick the classes that belong to this component and utilize them in another application without applying any change. For example, if you’re working on an application to wield orders and customers of a company, the model could be defined by sum the classes which define the base entities, like a customer, an order, a product, etc.

    The View

    The view is at the opposite side of the model and it’s represented by the user inteface. In the Universal Windows apps world, views are made by the XAML pages, which contain sum the controls and animations that define the visual layout of the application. Recyicling the already mentioned sample of an app to wield orders and customers, they can Have multiple views to parade the list of customers, the available products in the warehouse, the orders made by a customer, etc.

    The ViewModel

    The ViewModel is the connection point between the view and model; it takes pervade of retrieving the raw data from the model and manipulates it so that it can be properly displayed by the view. The huge incompatibility with a code behind class is that the ViewModel is just a unpretentious simple class, without any dependency from the View. In an application based on the MVVM pattern, typically you create a ViewModel for every View.

    Why the MVVM Pattern?

    After this brief introduction, it should be easier to understand why the MVVM pattern is so considerable and how, by adopting it, they can resolve sum of the problems mentioned at the beginning of the post.

  • By splitting the code in three different layers it becomes easier, especially if you’re working in a team, to maintain and evolve the application. If you necessity to add a feature or solve a bug, it’s easier to identify which layer has to be manipulated. Moreover, since there is no dependency between each layer, the travail can be too done in parallel (for example, a designer can start working on the user interface while another developer can create the services which will be used by the page to retrieve the data).
  • To properly discharge unit testing, the code to test has to be as simple and isolated as possible. When you travail with the code-behind approach, this is simply not possible; often the logic is connected to an event handler (for example, because the code has to be executed when you press a button) and you would necessity to find a pass to simulate the event in order to trigger the code to test. By adopting the MVVM pattern they demolish this tense dependency; the code included in a ViewModel can be easily isolated and tested.
  • Since they Have broken the tense connection between the user interface and the trade logic, it’s smooth for a designer to define the interface without having to know sum of the implementation details of the application. For example, if the designer has to travail on a fresh page which displays a list of orders, they can easily swap the actual ViewModel (which retrieves the data from a actual data source, like a cloud service or a database) with a fake one, which can generate fake data that allows the designer to easily understand which kindly of information the page should display.
  • Why in the Universal Windows app world finish most of the developers watch to utilize the MVVM pattern and not other current patterns like MVC or MVP? Mainly, because the MVVM pattern is based on many features which are at the core of the XAML runtime, like: binding, dependency properties, etc. In this chain of posts we’re going to talk a bit more about these features. You can notice how I’ve just mentioned XAML runtime and not the Universal Windows Platform: the intuition is that most of the things we’re going to behold in these posts aren’t specific to the Universal Windows app world, but they can be applied to any XAML based technology, like: WPF, Silverlight, Windows Phone, Xamarin, etc.

    Now, let’s pick a closer glance at what the basic XAML features leveraged by the MVVM pattern are.

    The Binding

    Binding is one of the most considerable XAML features and allows us to create a communication channel between two different properties. They can be properties that belong to different XAML controls, or a property declared in code with a control’s property. The key feature leveraged by the MVVM pattern is the second one: View and ViewModels are connected thanks to binding. The ViewModel takes pervade of exposing the data to disclose in the View as properties, which will be connected to the controls that will parade them using binding. Let’s say, for example, that they Have a page in the application that displays a list of products. The ViewModel will pick pervade of retrieving this information (for example, from a local database) and store it into a specific property (like a collection of sort List<Order>):

    public List<Order> Orders { get; set; }

    To parade the collection in a traditional code behind app, at some point, you would manually allocate this property to the ItemsSource property of a control like ListView or GridView, like in the following sample:

    MyList.ItemsSource = Orders;

    However, this code creates a tense connection between the logic and the UI; since we’re accessing to the ItemsSource property using the name of the control, they can discharge this operation only in the code behind class.

    Instead, with the MVVM pattern they connect properties in the ViewModel with controls in the UI using binding, like in the following sample:

    <ListView ItemsSource="{Binding Path=Orders}" />

    This way, they Have broken the dependency between the user interface and the logic, since the Orders property can be defined too in a unpretentious simple class like a ViewModel.

    As already mentioned, binding can be too bidirectional; this approach is used when not only the ViewModel needs to parade some data in the View, but too the View should be able to change the value of one of the ViewModel’s properties. Let’s exclaim that your application has a page where it can create a fresh order and, consequently, it includes a TextBox control where to set the name of the product. This information needs to be handled by the ViewModel, since it will pick pervade of interacting with the model and adding the order to the database. In this case, they apply to the binding the Mode mention and set it to TwoWay, so that everytime the user adds some text to the TextBox control, the connected property in the ViewModel will salvage the inserted value.

    If, in the XAML, they Have the following code, for example:

    <TextBox Text="{Binding Path=ProductName, Mode=TwoWay}" />

    It means that in the ViewModel they will Have a property called ProductName, which will hold the text inserted by the user in the box.

    The DataContext

    In the previous section we’ve seen how, thanks to the binding, they are able to connect the ViewModel’s properties to the controls in the XAML page. You may be wondering how the View model is able to understand which is the ViewModel that populates its data. To understand it, they necessity to insert the DataContext’s concept, which is a property offered by any XAML Control. The DataContext property defines the binding context: every time they set a class as a control’s DataContext, they are able to access sum of its public properties. Moreover, the DataContext is hierarchical: properties can be accessed not only by the control itself, but too sum of the children controls will be able to access to them.

    The core implementation of the MVVM pattern relies on this hierarachy: the class that they create as ViewModel of a View is defined as DataContext of the entire page. Consequently, every control they region in the XAML page will be able to access the ViewModel’s properties and disclose or wield the various information. In an application developed with the MVVM pattern, usually, you wait up having a page declaration like the following one:

    <Page x:Class="Sample.MainPage" xmlns:d="" xmlns:mc="" DataContext="{Binding Source={StaticResource MainViewModel}}" mc:Ignorable="d"> <!-- page content goes here --> </Page>

    The DataContext property of the Page class has been connected to a fresh instance of the MainViewModel class.

    The INotifyPropertyChanged interface

    If they try to create a simple application based on the MVVM pattern applying the concepts we’ve learned so far, they would quickly hit a mountainous issue. Let’s utilize the previous sample of the page to add a fresh order and let’s exclaim that they have, in the ViewModel, a property which they utilize to parade the product’s name, like the following one:

    public string ProductName { get; set; }

    According to what they Have just learned, they await to Have a TextBlock control in the page to parade the value of this property, like in the following sample:

    <TextBlock Text="{Binding Path=ProductName}" />

    Now, let’s exclaim during the excecution of the app the value of the ProductName property changes (for example, because a data loading operation is terminated). They will notice how, despite the fact that the ViewModel will properly hold the fresh value of the property, the TextBlock control will continue to disclose the obsolete one. The intuition is that binding isn’t enough to wield the connection between the View and the ViewModel. Binding has created a channel between the ProductName property and the TextBlock, but no one notified both sides of the channel that the value of the property has changed. For this purpose, XAML offers the concept of dependency properties, which are special properties that can define a complex deportment and, under the hood, are able to ship a notification to both sides of the binding channel every time its value changes. Most of the basic XAML controls utilize dependency properties (for example, the Text property of the TextBlock control is a dependency property). However, defining a fresh dependency property isn’t very straightforward and, in most cases, it offers features which aren’t needed for their MVVM scenario. Let’s pick the previous sample based on the ProductName property: they don’t necessity to wield any special deportment or logic, they just necessity that every time the ProductName property changes, both sides of the binding channel receive a notification, so that the TextBlock control can update its visual layout to parade the fresh value.

    For these scenarios, XAML offers a specific interface called INotifyPropertyChanged, which they can implement in their ViewModels. This way, if they necessity to notify the UI when they change the value of a property, they don’t necessity to create a complex dependency property, but they just necessity to implement this interface and invoke the related method every time the value of the property changes.

    Here is how a ViewModel that implements this interface looks:

    public class MainViewModel: INotifyPropertyChanged { public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged; [NotifyPropertyChangedInvocator] protected virtual void OnPropertyChanged([CallerMemberName] string propertyName = null) { PropertyChanged?.Invoke(this, fresh PropertyChangedEventArgs(propertyName)); } }

    Notice how the implementation of this interface allows us to call a method called OnPropertyChanged(), that they can invoke every time the value of a property changes. However, to gain this goal, they necessity to change the pass they define the properties inside their ViewModel. When it comes to simple properties, usually they define them using the short syntax:

    public string ProductName { get; set; }

    Hower, with this syntax they can’t change what happens when the value of the property is written or read. As such, they necessity to disappear back to utilize the obsolete approach, based on a private variable which holds the value of the property. This way, when the value is written, they are able to invoke the OnPropertyChanged() method and dispatch the notification. Here is how a property in a ViewModel looks:

    private string _productName; public string ProductName { salvage { revert _productName; } set { _productName = value; OnPropertyChanged(); } }

    Now the property will travail as expected; when they change its value, the TextBlock control in binding with it will change its appearance to parade it.

    Commands (or How to wield Events in MVVM)

    Another faultfinding scenario when it comes to developing an application is to wield the interactions with the user: he/she could press a button, pick an item in a list, etc. In XAML, these scenarios are handled using events which are exposed by various controls. For example, if you want to wield that the button has been pressed, they necessity to subscribe to the Click event, like in the following sample:

    <Button Content="Click me" Click="OnButtonClicked" />

    The event is managed by an event handler, which is a method that includes, among the various parameters, some information which is useful to understand the event context (for example, the control which triggered the event or which item of the list has been selected), like in the following sample:

    private void OnButtonClicked(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e) { //do something }

    The problem of this approach is that event handlers Have a tense dependency with the View; they can be declared, in fact, only in the code behind class. When you create an application using the MVVM pattern, sum the data and logic is usually defined in the ViewModel instead, so they necessity to find a pass to wield the user interaction there.

    For this purpose, the XAML has introduced commands, which is a pass to express a user interaction with a property instead of with an event handler. Since it’s just a simple property, they can demolish the tense connection between the view and the event handler and too define it in an independent class, like a ViewModel.

    The framework offers the ICommand interface to implement commands: with the yardstick approach, you wait up having a separated class for each command. The following sample shows how a command looks:

    public class ClickCommand : ICommand { public bool CanExecute(object parameter) { } public void Execute(object parameter) { } public event EventHandler CanExecuteChanged; }

    The core of the command is the Execute() method, which contains the code that is executed when the command is invoked (for example, because the user has pressed a button). It’s the code that, in a traditional application, they would Have written inside the event handler.

    The CanExecute() method is one of the most Interesting features provided by commands, since it can be used to wield the command’s lifecycle when the app is running. For example, let’s exclaim that you Have a page with a figure to fill, with a button at the wait of the page that the user has to press to ship the form. Since sum the fields are required, they want to disable the button until sum the fields Have been filled. If they wield the operation to ship the figure with a command, they are able to implement the CanExecute() method in a pass that it will revert counterfeit when there’s at least one domain still empty. This way, the Button control that they Have linked to the command will automatically change his/her visual status: it will be disabled and the user will immediately understand that he won’t be able to press it. 


    In the end, the command offers an event called CanExecuteChanged, which they can invoke inside the ViewModel every time the condition they want to monitor to wield the status of the command changes. For example, in the previous sample, they would call the CanExecuteChanged event every time the user fills one of the fields of the form.

    Once they Have defined a command, they can link it to the XAML thanks to the Command property, which is exposed by every control that are able to wield the interaction with the user (like Button, RadioButton, etc.)

    <Button Content="Click me" Command="{Binding Path=ClickCommand}" />

    As we’re going to behold in the next post, however, most of the toolkits and frameworks to implement the MVVM pattern tender an easier pass to define a command, without forcing the developer to create a fresh class for each command of the application. For example, the current MVVM Light toolkit offers a class called RelayCommand, which can be used to define a command in the following way:

    private RelayCommand _sayHello; public RelayCommand SayHello { salvage { if (_sayHello == null) { _sayHello = fresh RelayCommand(() => { Message = string.Format("Hello {0}", Name); }, () => !string.IsNullOrEmpty(Name)); } revert _sayHello; } }

    As you can see, they don’t necessity to define a fresh class for each command, but by using anonymous methods, they can simply create a fresh RelayCommand demur and pass, as parameters:

  • The code that they want to excecute when the command is invoked.
  • The code that evaluates if the command is enabled or not.
  • We’re going to learn more about this approach in the next post.

    How to Implement the MVVM Pattern: Toolkits and Frameworks

    As I mentioned at the beginning of the post, MVVM is a pattern, it isn’t a library or a framework. However, as we’ve learned up to now, when you create an application based on this pattern you necessity to leverage a set of yardstick procedures: implementing the INotifyPropertyChanged interface, handling commands, etc.

    Consequently, many developers Have started to travail on libraries that can alleviate the developer’s job, allowing them to focus on the evolution of the app itself, rather than on how to implement the pattern. Let’s behold which are the most current libraries.

    MVVM Light

    MVVM Light ( is a library created by Laurent Bugnion, a long time MVP and one of the most current developers in the Microsoft world. This library is very current thanks to its flexibility and simplicity. MVVM Light, in fact, offers just the basic tools to implement the pattern, like:

  • A base class, which the ViewModel can inherit from, to salvage quick access to some basic features like notifications.
  • A base class to wield commands.
  • A basic messaging system, to wield the communication between different classes (like two ViewModels).
  • A basic system to wield dependency injection, which is an alternative pass to initialize ViewModels and wield their dependencies. We’ll learn more about this concept in another post.
  • Since MVVM Light is very basic, it can be leveraged not just by Universal Windows apps, but too in WPF, Sivlerlight, and even Android and iOS thanks to its compatibility with Xamarin. Since it’s extremely flexible, it’s too smooth to adjust it to your requirements and as a starting point for the customization you may want to create. This simplicity, however, is too the weakness of MVVM Light. As we’re going to behold in the next posts, when you create a Universal Windows app using the MVVM pattern you will puss many challenges, since many basic concepts and features of the platform (like the navigation between different pages) can be handled only in a code behind class. From this point of view, MVVM Light doesn’t alleviate the developer that much: since it offers just the basic tools to implement the pattern, every thing else is up to the developer. For these reasons, you’ll find on the web many additional libraries (like the Cimbalino Toolkit) which extend MVVM Light and add a set of services and features that are useful when it comes to developing a Universal Windows app.

    Caliburn Micro

    Caliburn Micro ( is a framework originally created by Rob Eisenberg and now maintained by Nigel Sampson and Thomas Ibel. If MVVM Light is a toolkit, Caliburn Micro is a complete framework, which offers a completely differnent approach. Compared to MVVM Light, in fact, Caliburn Micro offers a rich set of services and features which are specific to resolve some of the challenges provided by the Universal Windows Platform, like navigation, storage, contracts, etc.

    Caliburn Micro handles most of the basic features of the pattern with naming conventions; the implementation of binding, commands, and others concepts are hidden by a set of rules, based on the names that they necessity to allocate to the various components of the project. For example, if they want to connect a ViewModel’s property with a XAML control, they don’t Have to manually define a binding; they can simply give to the control the selfsame name of the property and Caliburn Micro will apply the binding for us. This is made workable by a bootstrapper, which is a special class that replaces the yardstick App class and takes pervade of intializing, other than the app itself, the Caliburn infrastructure.

    Caliburn Micro is, without any doubt, very powerful, since you’ll Have immediate access to sum the tools required to properly develop a Universl Windows app using the MVVM pattern. However, in my opinion, it isn’t the best altenative if you’re fresh to the MVVM pattern: since it hides most of the basic concepts which are at the core of the pattern, it can be complex for a fresh developer to understand what’s going on and how the different pieces of the app are connected together.


    Prism ( is another current framework which, in the beginning, was created and maintaned by the Pattern & Practises division by Microsoft. Now, instead, it has become a community project, maintained by a group of independent developers and Microsoft MVPs.

    Prism is a framework and uses a similar approach to the one provided by Caliburn Micro: it offers naming convention, to connect the different pieces of the app together, and it includes a rich set of services to resolve the challenges provded by the Universal Windows Platform.

    We can exclaim that it sits in the middle between MVVM Light and Caliburn Micro, when it comes to complexity: it isn’t simple and resilient like MVVM Light but, at the selfsame time, it doesn’t utilize naming convention in an aggressive pass like Caliburn Micro does.

    Coming soon

    In the next posts we’re going to spin what we’ve learned so far into a actual project and we’re going to leverage MVVM Light for this purpose: the intuition is that, as I’ve already mentioned, I reflect MVVM Light is the easiest one to understand, especially if you’re fresh to the pattern, since it will alleviate us to learn sum the basic concepts which are at the core of the pattern. If you want to start looking at a actual project, you’ll find many samples (which we’re going to account for in a more detailed way) on my GitHub repository at wait tuned!

    By the way, this post has been written with OpenLiveWriter, the fresh open source version of Windows Live Writer, which has now become a community driven project. In my feeling (and I'm not alone), Open Live Writer is the best appliance in the world to write blog posts, so thanks to Microsoft for making this occur and thanks to sum the much developers that are contributing to the project and keeping it alive!

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