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# 650-379 Advanced Borderless Network Architecture Systems Engineer

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# Cisco Advanced Borderless Network Architecture

### Gulf traffic Machines earns the Cisco without borderlines network architecture specialized studying companion popularity in the GCC | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Gulf traffic Machines GBM, a Cisco Gold associate and the region’s leading IT options company, these days announced that it has earned the celebrated Cisco borderless network architecture specialized learning companion status in the Gulf Cooperation Council GCC area.

The partnership will allow Cisco without borders network architecture researching Specialization to investigate the aptitude of a learning colleague to deliver best classes around selling, designing, installation, and aiding Cisco products, applied sciences and solutions that are below Cisco's borderless network structure. With this partnership, GBM is entitled to design and create Cisco Derivate Works.

“Our relationship with GBM goes returned several years and this latest certification simplest serves to reemphasize the mutual importance of this partnership,” Claire Jones, Regional manager at Cisco UAE.“GBM’s successful song listing in the set is, partly, in keeping with its skill to count on its consumers’ future needs after which to subsist positive that these wants are met. This skill to maintain pace with a quick altering enterprise environment and to supply its shoppers with optimal-in-classification applied sciences, performed a crucial role in their resolution to designate GBM as without borders network structure specialized gaining information of partner.”

GBM shares a longstanding relationship with Cisco and has been a Cisco studying accomplice CLP on account that 2008 with exotic presence within the UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Pakistan. moreover, in June 2011, GBM and Cisco collectively launched Oman’s first and best Cisco working towards heart as a Part of GBM’s researching functions Platform. the whole-fledged working towards middle became designed to present Cisco practising services to job seekers and IT authorities and deliver Cisco authorized and approved content, together with expertise, product-selected and certification-education classes

“we're very completely cheerful to own earned the Cisco advanced without border lines network architecture Specialization for the GCC area. This attention doesn't handiest validate their longstanding relationship with Cisco, but besides their commitment to point to and invest in native and regional talent while offering a greater focused latitude of Cisco trainings the consume of their certified Cisco programs Instructors,” spoke of Pawandeep Singh Arora, earnings manager, researching functions for the Gulf area, Gulf traffic Machines.

### Cisco’s ‘without borderlines community’ strategy explained | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Ross Fowler had to proceed over from the U.S. to attain Toronto, but that’s one of the vital best borders he issues himself with today.

As vice-president of Cisco’s without borders network structure neighborhood, Fowler is making an attempt to uphold the network rig maker sell traffic clients on a holistic strategy to offering anytime, any set entry to company facts across any gadget, specially as they start to discover cloud computing fashions with third party suppliers. It’s a collection of products that comprises elements from its switching, routing, security and wireless portfolio that some clients and industry analysts own discovered perplexing and tricky to wrap their heads round.

all over a discuss with to select half in an IT World Canada-led roundtable dialogue with senior Canadian IT executives, Fowler sat down with network World Canada to talk about his growth to this point.

community World Canada: How would you admiration your customer’s figuring out of what Cisco’s “without borders community” notion in fact capability?

Ross Fowler: The issues that underpin the without border lines network mode are pervasive throughout their valued clientele. I actually own institute they own not made the connection in lots of cases between the concerns they puss around adjustments to the workplace journey, breaking down borders between us as buyers and us as employees, or breaking down the borders of purposeful silos in an organization and even breaking down the borders between the corporation and the outdoor world – getting closer to customers, companions and suppliers. The connection between that and the growth in mobility and the toil environment and additionally the multiply in video. They haven’t made a connection between those market transition and the undeniable fact that their firm is becoming more and more without borderlines. at the surge when they launched this in August ultimate year, the response become dubious, and in some cases it changed into in reality rather poor. At their global client advisory board, which has their privilege 60 international customers, the reaction become distinctive, but on stability most of them sat their with their fingers folded, announcing, “My firm will not ever subsist without border lines.” but after they start to admiration concerning the transitions behind it they arrive to the conclusion that they definitely can’t cease it. And if they don’t ply the security challenges that this items, they’re supine to subsist relatively vulnerable. That’s the set this dialogue around policy, round posture, about cloud computing and the safety implications that foster out of that revolve into greater vital, and knowing that the manner they addressed protection during the past gained’t establish together them for the challenges in safety in the future.

NWC: earlier than without border lines networks, there was Cisco’s “statistics centre 3.0” strategy. How does one naturally evolve to the different?

RF: I don’t suppose they’re jointly unique. As you recognize they headed down the records centre 3.0 direction after which that configuration of moved into statistics centre virtualization structure. And in parallel they had a migration from IP telephony to unified communications, to then a collaboration structure. So they embarked upon those two architectures, however they didn’t embark upon an structure for the underlying network infrastructure that supports that. Their conclusion become that they needed to select the enterprise that we’d been in for the past 25 years and basically create an architecture for that, to assist the virtualization architecture and the collaboration architectures, and this intended they needed to spin beyond just treating routing, switching, routing and protection as part items, and bear them together as an structure.

NWC: Some network managers own indicated that Cisco’s without borderlines network mode is overwhelming, and they’d identical to to subsist bought products they want. How are you working via that variety of aspect?

RF: neatly it’s no longer handiest that they requisite to toil through these with consumers, they requisite to toil in a different way inside Cisco. You probably heard about their fairly large transformation round boards and councils – to circulation from command and manage to collaboration. So they definitely shaped a borderless network board at the identical time they developed the architecture to in fact flip that privilege into a fact within the engineering company. It likely wouldn’t foster as a shock to you that we’ve had switching enterprise contraptions, instant traffic devices, a protection traffic unit and routing. The stage of integration and cooperation between those enterprise units become definitely now not the medium required to bring an structure. So they took the overlying without borders network architecture and observed, “What are the community features they requisite to convey throughout these enterprise instruments to Make this a truth?” issues enjoy action – the mobility service, power-clever to maneuver power consumption, Trustsec to deliver protection capabilities, App pace to deliver software performance across the community, and MediaNet to deliver video and voice throughout the network. They then converted that orthodox architecture into requisites for facets in each of the products to toil across those products. for example, MediaNet requires RSVP, which is an IP protocol that’s been around for a long time, plus NBAR, plus PFR, or efficiency routing, to toil seamlessly throughout any of those products with one management platform. The board then offered funding for any those enterprise units to revolve that vision, if you like, into features inside each and every of the bins and how they toil collectively. And that’s a large exchange for Cisco.

NWC: The without border lines community concept contains the manner corporations at the instant are globally dispensed, the way compute supplies are farmed into the cloud and the style purposes are delivered as a carrier. when it comes to getting ready your network, how should soundless network administrators toil out the most suitable locality to start?

NWC: It seems enjoy Cisco is concentrated on the CIO with without border lines networks, but given how an Awful lot the community helps oblige a lot of the company pastime now, how is the role of the network administrator altering?

RF: When i used to subsist in Europe, if they had engagements with CIOs around the uptime of their information centre, they might provide the reply enjoy that (snaps fingers). in case you requested them the uptime of their network turned into, until they were provider suppliers, they would battle to own a solution. I’m now not so bound that pervasively throughout the IT company that they select an architectural and lifecycle mode to their network in the identical means that they Do for their information centre. and definitely their view is, and with some of the leading consumers, they deserve to select an architectural and lifecycle strategy to their network, because it is mission-crucial infrastructure. I’m no longer so positive they in reality remember how mission-critical here is and how advanced here's. The network administrators in reality abide in intelligence this as a result of they’ve been working at it for thus long, but as you proceed into the software enviornment of their consumer locality or the security enviornment of their consumers’ companies, they may additionally not recognise the role the network basically performs.

### Cisco Unveils New secure borderless network architecture | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Cisco these days at RSA took the wraps off plans for a brand new comfy architecture that it says will allow purchasers to access guidance from any machine at any locality while soundless conserving a excessive stage of security and ease of use.

Dubbed the Cisco secure without border lines community, the structure will stand on the strengths of two pillars Cisco introduced today as a Part of its product portfolio: AnyConnect cozy Mobility,  an integrated suite together with endpoint administration, net security gateway and firewall technologies designed to secure connections across the board, and TrustSec policy-based access control. AnyConnect is due out in second quarter, as are enhancements to TrustSec as a way to expand Cisco's consumer capabilities in identification-aware networking.

"it subsist the structure of their underlying network infrastructure company,"  says Ross Fowler, vice chairman of without borderlines network architecture for Cisco. "there is a really huge security theme at the back of this, because because the networks develop into without border lines, there are some new challenges that shoppers are facing (in admiration to protection). however here is in regards to the broader community structure that we're launching. We're focusing on the transitions and they identified three market transitions which are really using their community architecture into the longer term. the first one is mobility, 2nd one is video, the third is around the workspace experience."

As channel customers are trying to leverage an entire latitude of cellular gadgets, Make the most of video for better collaboration and faucet into a number of commercial enterprise functions no count no matter if they're on or off the network--all while keeping the integrity and security of famous traffic statistics--Cisco hopes to smooth the mode throughout the cozy without borders network structure.

the first piece of the structure puzzle, AnyConnect at ease Mobility presents seamless connectivity no depend which rig and what aptitude of connectivity are used. as an instance, a consumer with AnyConnect can allow users to withhold session situation while filling out internet kinds on their computing device whilst that computing device seamlessly switches between a spotty Wi-Fi connection and a 3G connection. The connections are provided transparently and securely, offering coverage for both managed and unmanaged instruments. AnyConnect integrates performance throughout the mobility customer and across Cisco's IronPort S-collection web protection rig and its Adaptive safety rig firewall. And the eventual video game blueprint is to consist of hybrid enforcement delivered in the course of the Cisco IronPort S-collection home rig and cloud-based mostly protection delivered via Cisco ScanSafe.

incorporated into this could subsist TrustSec, which aids clients in constructing coverage-based entry control into their borderless networks. As Part of the new borderless initiative, TrustSec has been improved to encompass Cisco NAC and Cisco identity-based Networking features, including integrated gadget profiling and visitor access services for 802.1X, superior conclusion-to-conclusion monitoring and troubleshooting, plus security group Tag (SGT) and SGT trade Protocol (SXP) know-how for catalyst and Nexus switches.

in response to Fowler, the new architecture presents a number of alternatives for the channel.

"it subsist not always in terms of the customer value proposition, besides in terms of the features and value add that they can deliver to consumers as neatly," he says. "I believe they can wrap some new evaluation around the items. So they now own institute their companion neighborhood is very enthusiastic about this."

additionally, this new structure introduces an better salary mannequin over one that Cisco historically presents its companions, says Tom Gillis, vice president and accepted supervisor of the security expertise company unit at Cisco.

"Cisco has historically been a container business," Gillis says. "A domain has a inevitable company mannequin linked to it. You buy it, you consume it after which you watch for it attain skill and buy a further one. This respond has a habitual revenue model and from a accomplice standpoint that may besides subsist a pretty honorable thing."

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### Netskope Brings On World-Renowned Industry Leaders to Lead Newly-Formed Platform Engineering Team | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

SANTA CLARA, Calif., March 28, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Netskope, the leader in cloud security, today announced the appointment of Joe DePalo as Senior Vice President, Platform Engineering. Joining the platform engineering team with DePalo are VP of Platform Architecture and Services Jason Hofmann; VP of Platform Engineering Jake Roersma; and VP of Infrastructure Patrick Bohannon.

The surge of cloud computing and microservices architectures has expanded the scope of cloud operations into a platform engineering role whose charter is to provide and uphold a platform or set of platforms on top of which services can subsist built. The Netskope platform engineering organization will subsist focused on structure out the worldwide Netskope private cloud while continuing to toil with the major public cloud providers, creating a unified platform that includes end-to-end monitoring, automated orchestration, and self-healing, optimized for resiliency and performance.

In addition to DePalo, Hofmann, Roersma, and Bohannon, the Netskope platform engineering organization has made dozens of additional strategic hires who own helped to scale the internet and launch and scale some of the world's largest cloud services, carriers, CDNs and networks including Amazon Web Services (AWS), Level3 Networks, Limelight Networks, VMware, Twitch, DE-CIX, Microsoft and CenturyLink.

The organization will subsist chartered to design, build, and operate the current and future generations of the Netskope infrastructure and platform, spanning from core infrastructure including the global Netskope cloud network and data centers, and its connectivity to every region, person, and destination in the world.

"It's an exotic time to subsist alongside the diverse, collaborative and accomplished Netskope team members across the world who continue to drive the world's definitive security cloud," said Sanjay Beri, founder and CEO, Netskope. "Digital transformation and the corresponding cybersecurity transformation are upending traditional data and network security markets and leading to an ever-increasing requisite for security built for the way they toil today - this is what the Netskope Security Cloud was built for. The addition of these highly skilled leaders and innovators to drive Platform Engineering is very exciting and key to us providing Netskope customers with the most secure, intuitive and holistic security cloud platform for their security needs now and in the future."

DePalo will lead the platform engineering team. He was previously the global head of internet services for Amazon Web Services (AWS), where he was amenable for the AWS Global Network and the Amazon carrier strategy. Prior to AWS, he was SVP of operations and engineering at Limelight Networks. There, he and his team built the second-largest content delivery network in the world.

"I own seen the gaps in the cloud and web security market firsthand and am haughty to unite a forward-thinking team that is dedicated to delivering a product to customers that is both effective and innovative," said DePalo. "Creating a cybersecurity solution that has the flexibility that customers require is a large undertaking, and Netskope has brought together the best minds in the traffic to Make it happen."

Hofmann is a seasoned technology executive with 20 years of experience. As VP of Platform Architecture and Services, Hofmann joins Netskope to lead the platform architecture and platform services teams. His team will besides engage customers to ensure successful integration and continued success with the products and platform. He was previously at Limelight Networks, a global top-tier content delivery network, where he held key roles in R&D, product management, and professional services over the ultimate 10 years. Most recently as VP of Architecture and as head of Product Management, Hofmann spearheaded strategic initiatives to help customer satisfaction, quality, performance, efficiency, and profitability. Hofmann has innovated extensively in his domain and currently holds five U.S. patents.

Roersma comes from a multidisciplinary background where he has held technical and leadership roles. As VP of Platform Engineering, Roersma will own the systems architecture, systems engineering, and DevOps organizations. His team will build, operate, and mature the finish to finish infrastructure that encompasses the Netskope platform. Another alumni of Limelight Networks, Roersma spent the ultimate 10 years helping architect and develop a number of products and solutions, grow and mature the systems engineering team in operations, create and evolve the project management office, and ended his tenure as the head of Software Engineering.

As VP of Infrastructure, Bohannon joins Netskope to lead the network operations, network engineering and network architecture teams. His team will ensure the reliability and character of the Netskope network, infrastructure, and platform as it continues to scale. They are besides charged with facilitating the rapid growth of the global network and infrastructure in order to meet existing and future market demands. He was previously on the Amazon Web Services traffic evolution team, where he was amenable for building, designing, architecting and engineering Amazon's networks and connecting Amazon to the outside world. He besides worked to design highly available, scalable networks that Do not constrain growth and uphold internal customers and service owners' innovation and scaling plans. He has besides held roles at Cisco, Internet2, and NASA.

About NetskopeNetskope is the leader in cloud security. They serve the world's largest organizations select replete handicap of the cloud and web without sacrificing security. Their patented Cloud XD technology eliminates blind spots by going deeper than any other security provider to quickly target and control activities across thousands of cloud services and millions of websites. With replete control through one cloud-native interface, their customers benefit from 360-degree data protection that guards data everywhere and advanced threat protection that stops elusive attacks. Netskope — smart cloud security.

Media ContactDanny PhamBateman Group for Netskopenetskope@bateman-group.com

SOURCE Netskope

Copyright (C) 2019 PR Newswire. any rights reserved

### Sevatec Achieves Advanced Consulting colleague Status in the Amazon Web Services colleague Network | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

FAIRFAX, Va., March 21, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Sevatec announced it is now an Advanced Consulting colleague in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) colleague Network (APN). The new APN status denotes that Sevatec has met rigorous requirements demonstrating the scale of their AWS expertise and capabilities.

"This milestone for Sevatec is a reflection of their investment and proven track record in helping clients with their most difficult and involved cloud architecture, engineering, and migration efforts for enterprise mission-critical systems," said Sevatec Chief Solutions Officer, Mike McKinney. "With their focus on shared services, automation, DevSecOps-based continuous delivery, and a seamless uniform relish of infrastructure resources within the hybrid environment, any built on a cloud native architecture, Sevatec has established itself as a leader with federal government agencies looking for flawless digital transformation."

Sevatec has been helping federal government clients to design, architect, build, migrate, and manage cloud solutions built on AWS since the federal government started migrating to the cloud more than 5 years ago. Their expert teams of dedicated developers, architects, and system administrators own consistently provided cutting-edge expertise in designing, building, and managing world-class cloud-native applications for federal government clients.

For two days surge June 11, 2019, Sevatec will unite global leaders from government, education, and nonprofit organizations at the AWS Public Sector Summit in Washington, DC to highlight some of their solutions built on AWS. Case studies about these solutions can subsist read on Sevatec's website here.

About SevatecSevatec is a leading national security firm specializing in agile software delivery, data analytics, digital services, cybersecurity, and cloud engineering solutions. Founded in 2003 on the concept of "Seva," signification "Inspired to Serve a Greater Purpose," their portfolio of mission-critical technology solutions includes homeland and law enforcement agencies, Department of Defense, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and multiple civilian departments and agencies.

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### Direct electronetting of high-performance membranes based on self-assembled 2D nanoarchitectured networks | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Assembly model of 2D nano-nets

We proposed a collector inductively coupled direct electronetting technique to assemble various micro-/nanoarchitectures including microspheres, beaded fibers, beaded nanofiber nets and nano-nets (as illustrated in Fig. 1a). The electrostatic domain can subsist precisely controlled at the micro plane to achieve on-demand distribution by tailoring the dielectric properties (conductive or dielectric) and configurations (flat or concave) of the collectors. The unique direct electronetting process was performed using extremely diluted (1–3 wt%) precursor solutions of high-molecular-weight polymers. The polymer concentrations of these solutions were far below that for electrospinning, and their molecular weights were too tall to meet the requirement for electrospraying31,32,33. This is the principal feature in terms of raw materials that differentiates direct electronetting from other electrohydrodynamic techniques. To betray the self-assembly of the obtained architectures, they developed an ejection model for the Taylor cone, which was capable of linking the solution properties and operating parameters to the forms and dynamics of the issued fluids. Two several ejection modes (i.e., jet and droplet) driven by the competition between Coulombic repulsion Fe and hydrostatic pressure Fγ at the Taylor cone apex were proposed, and the schematic model is shown in Fig. 1b. More excitingly, they can easily forecast these two ejection modes using their two faultfinding equations obtained based on oblige preconditions and speculative derivation (Supplementary Note 1). The multiply in the suffuse density of the liquid caused the ejection mode of the Taylor cone to change accordingly: cylindrical jets formed when the suffuse density exceeded the jet threshold of Jc, while spherical droplets were ejected with a higher suffuse density than the droplet threshold of Dc24,25.

$$J_{\mathrm {c}} = \sqrt {{\mathrm{64\varepsilon \gamma }}/\delta \rho ^2D^3}.$$

(1)

$$D_{\mathrm {c}} = \sqrt {{\mathrm{288\varepsilon \gamma /}}\delta \rho ^2D^3}.$$

(2)

Collectors with different permittivities usually allow the electrostatic domain to become an locality where the potential exhibits changed distribution states and, thus, greatly affects the dynamics of the Taylor cone. Herein, they interject a correction factor (δ) to comprehend the repercussion from receivers into their ejection model to betray the relationship between substrate properties and electric potential during direct electronetting (Supplementary Note 1).

Fig. 1

Origin, evolution and regulation of two-dimensional (2D) nano-nets during direct electronetting. a Schematic showing the collector inductively coupled direct electronetting strategy. Four designed collectors trigger the assembly of four different architectures. b Competition between the two main forces (Coulomb repulsion Fe and hydrostatic pressure Fγ) on the Taylor cone apex. c Electric domain optimization by customizing the collectors in terms of conductivity and configuration. Left, flat conductive collector. Right, concave dielectric collector. d Forces acting on the charged droplet flying across a concave collector. Electrostatic oblige FE and air drag Ff. e Profiles of the potential vs distance of electric fields generated using the two collectors in (c). The X- and Y-axis directions are shown using the horizontal and vertical arrows at the left of (c), respectively

The dynamic evolution of the microsized droplets was driven by their surrounding electric field25,34,35,36. Here, they performed finite ingredient mode simulations using COMSOL® Multiphysics software with an AC/DC module to simulate the electrostatic domain (Supplementary Table 2 and Supplementary Methods), analyze its capacity for tailoring the ejected liquid configuration (jet or droplet) and, thus, lead the actual operation for direct electronetting. Figure 1c and Supplementary Fig. 1 illustrate the distribution of electric fields using different collectors with designed conductivities and configurations. In dramatic contrast to that of the flat conductive collector, the electric domain becomes significantly concentrated due to polarization of the dielectric collector, resulting in a slower damping speed of the electric potential along the Y-axis. Meanwhile, the concave configuration leads to a significant fluctuation of electric potential along the X-axis, and this fluctuation functions as an insulating-block parallel receiver to allow the forces to drive the deformation of the charged droplets. The schematic showing the forces acting on the droplets in such a microelectric domain is illustrated in Fig. 1d. Similar to the patterning of electrospun nanofibers, the electrostatic oblige along the potential gradient combined with the synergistic sequel from air drag allows the stretching of charged droplets and evolution of their architecture from microspheres to fibers after solvent evaporation37,38. To further quantitatively analyze the electric field, COMSOL® was used, and the resultant potential-distance curves of two contrastive systems are shown in Fig. 1e. Obviously, the topographically structured collectors with different conductivities enabled precise control of the electric domain distribution. Using a concave dielectric receiver, the potential across the collector (X-axis) showed greatly enhanced fluctuation of 500% (from ~200 to ~1000 V) compared to the almost-unchanged potential of ~200 V using a flat conductive collector, and this result further confirmed the capacity of the inductively coupled collectors for controlling the evolution of charged droplets. Moreover, in contrast to the flat conductive collector, a sustained higher potential along the Y-axis was achieved using the dielectric collector, and thus it can greatly facilitate droplet ejection from the Taylor cone.

Mother Nature’s legacy not only makes Voronoi cells visible in nature, but shows ordered dynamic evolution phenomena as well39,40,41,42. Their obtained nano-nets may subsist regarded as another similar case, and their unique 2D nanoarchitectured fibrous networks has never before been reported (Supplementary Fig. 2). Here, they proposed a practicable formation process for 2D nanofibrous networks (Supplementary Fig. 3 and Supplementary Discussion). Using the direct electronetting, the charged droplets, which could subsist regarded as a levitating cluster, perhaps undergo rapid self-assembly of their spatial position based on dissipative sequel to achieve an energy/material minimum state40,42,43, and rapid stretching deformation due to the differential microelectric fields37,38,44, as clarified in Fig. 1d. Thus, further stretching and solvent evaporation would result in the formation of nanofiber assemblies with model or weighted 2D networks (i.e., nano-nets or beaded nanofiber nets). Evidence of this practicable formation process besides arose from the following scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation of the architectures obtained using different topographically structured collectors with designed conductivities.

Model validation, design and processing of 2D nano-nets

To elaborate the structural evolution and control of the self-assembled architectures obtained using direct electronetting, they first chose polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) system as a model for their proof-of-concept study, in considering its outstanding properties such as tall thermal/chemical stability, robust mechanical property and tough piezo-, pyro-, ferroelectric properties for consume in various applications7,45. The minute parameters for PVDF sample preparation for SEM observation are illustrated in Supplementary Table 2. First, a concave aluminum (Al) foil was used to collect the self-assembled architectures, and the observed SEM result is shown in Fig. 2a. Obviously, different surface topographies led to the formation of different architectures. Only microspheres formed on the flat zone (top privilege image in Fig. 2a), and this phenomenon agreed very well with the prediction of their proposed model. In contrast, 1D nanofibers were deposited across the concave on the collector (bottom privilege image in Fig. 2a), which provided tough evidence to verify the stretching deformation of droplets due to the potential gradient in the microelectric domain (Fig. 1c–e). To further betray the role of the surface topography of collectors, they create concaves with different widths on dielectric polymethyl methacrylate films using femtosecond laser ablation; the fibrous materials obtained using such collectors are shown in Fig. 2b. Beaded fibers assembled in the flat zone on both sides of the concaves, while nanofibers and nano-nets formed across the concaves. Further analysis of the architectures on the concave revealed that upon increasing the concave width from 3 to 5 μm, the formation of beaded fibers was greatly inhibited, while the self-assembly of nano-nets was significantly enhanced, as shown in Fig. 2b (insets). However, further increasing the concave width to 10 μm caused the nano-nets to subsist broken due to the excessive stretching of charged droplets (inset of Fig. 2b). This change suggests an obvious size match between droplet deformation and the microelectric field, providing another strategy to tailor the self-assembly of 2D nano-nets.

Fig. 2

Model validation, design and synthesis of the self-assembled architectures. a Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) self-assembled architectures on the flat collector with a concave zone. Scale bar at the left of (a), 10 μm. Scale bars at the privilege of (a), 1 μm. b SEM images of PVDF self-assembled architectures across concaves with different widths. The concave widths in (b) (from left to right) are 3, 5 and 10 μm. Scale bars in (b), 2 μm. Scale bars in the insets of (b), 500 nm. c Relative permittivity of the collectors including polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber membranes with different electrospinning durations, nonwoven fabric and paper. PAN-X, X is the spinning duration (min). d suffuse density (e/m), jet and droplet thresholds of the fluids ejected from the PVDF solution and received using various collectors in (c) during the direct electronetting process. error bars in (c, d) depict s.d. e Typical SEM images of PVDF self-assembled architectures collected using different collectors. Top images in (e) (from left to right): aluminum (Al) foil, nonporous paper, copper (Cu) mesh, nonwoven fabric. Bottom images in (e) PAN fiber membranes with various structures (from left to right): untreated 10 min, untreated 30 min, untreated 240 min and compacted 30 min. The insets are the corresponding high-magnification images of the self-assembled architectures. Scale bars in (e), 1 μm. Scale bars in the insets of (e), 500 nm

To adjust the microelectric domain during direct electronetting process, various topographically structured collectors (flat or porous) with designed conductivities (conductive or dielectric) were used. In addition to the common substrates, such as nonwoven fabric, paper, Al foil and Cu mesh, they besides employed a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospun fiber membrane as a flexibly adjustable collector. Figure 2c presents the relative permittivities and pore sizes of the used substrates. Upon increasing the spinning duration from 5 to 240 min, the permittivity of PAN fiber membranes gradually increased from 1.13 to 2.52, while their pore size decreased significantly from ~10 to ~1.7 μm. This change in the PAN membranes could effectively fill the gap between nonwoven fabric (permittivity of 1.57 and pore size of ~50 μm) and nonporous paper (permittivity of 2.92) to achieve a continuous design for inductively coupled collectors. Moreover, by plugging the solution properties and process parameters into their assembly model (Supplementary Table 3), they established a numerical prediction diagram for the formation of 2D nano-nets. The faultfinding formation thresholds for jets and droplets using various substrates were calculated, and their actual suffuse densities were experimentally measured25. The obtained results are shown in Fig. 2d. Obviously, the increased dielectric property allows for significantly decreased jet and droplet thresholds. This result was ascribed to the concentration of the electric domain due to the dielectric collectors (Fig. 1c–e), which could generate an induced suffuse in the electrostatic field. In contrast, using conductive Al foil and Cu mesh caused much higher jet and droplet thresholds. For instance, the droplet thresholds of the fluids using Al foil and Cu mesh collectors were 22.7 and 19.8 c kg−1, while those using the dielectric collectors were much lower: 18.1 c kg−1 for nonwoven fabric, 13.3 c kg−1 for paper and 14.3–21.3 c kg−1 for various PAN fiber membranes, respectively. Besides the collectors, the sequel of PVDF solutions with different components and concentrations on droplet ejection was besides studied (Supplementary Fig. 4 and Supplementary Discussion). Here, they employed the dissimilarity (Δ) between the actual value and the speculative droplet threshold of the fluids as an indicator of the capability to burst and generate droplets from the Taylor cone. When using PAN-30 fiber membrane as a collector, the Δ achieved the largest value of 10.3 c kg−1, indicating the highest formation probability and speed of the droplets during direct electronetting process.

Next, to verify their model predictions, watchful SEM observation was conducted to characterize the assembled architectures on various collectors, and the results are shown in Fig. 2e. As predicted by the assembly model, almost exclusively microspheres formed on the flat Al foil due to the requisite of microelectric domain (Fig. 2e). The consume of paper collectors caused a slightly lower suffuse density of the fluid from Taylor cone (Fig. 2d), and the SEM result matched very well with this prediction: both broken fibers and microspheres were deposited (Fig. 2e). In contrast, the porous collectors, such as Cu mesh and nonwoven fabric, successfully resulted in microelectric fields to facilitate the self-assembly of architectures with 2D network structures. As displayed in Fig. 2e, beaded nanofiber nets and nano-nets self-assembled as expected, and the nonwoven fabric caused better assembly due to its dielectric property that could create a higher microelectric gradient. Meanwhile, obviously more fibrous net deposition could subsist observed on the Cu mesh collector, further confirming the model prediction that a larger Δ (~7.7 c kg−1) enhanced the formation probability and speed of the droplets.

Inspired by the successful consume of dielectric nonwoven fabric, they further collected the self-assembled architectures using PAN fiber membranes with various pore sizes as substrates (Supplementary Fig. 5), and the typical SEM results are shown in Fig. 2e. The change in pore size led to an obvious structural change in the obtained architectures—broken nano-nets with thinner fiber diameters deposited on the PAN-10 membranes due to excessive stretching that arose from the large pore size (8 μm), while some fibers together with nano-nets formed on the PAN-240 membranes owing to the suppressive charging capability caused by using thicker insulating PAN membranes. Using PAN-30 membranes, desirable nano-nets could subsist self-assembled by virtue of their optimized combination of dielectric properties and pore size (3 μm) (Fig. 2e). To further verify the sequel of the microelectric domain stemming from the pore structure, they prepared a fully compacted PAN-30 fiber membrane using a tablet machine with a pressure of 30 MPa and used it as the collector for direct electronetting. Removal of the pore structure of PAN membranes with almost-unchanged dielectric properties resulted in a dramatic structural change from nano-nets to microspheres, as demonstrated in Fig. 2e. Besides the electric field, the influence of solution system enjoy polymer/additive concentration, molecular weight (Mw) and flood rate on the formation of PVDF nano-nets was besides investigated. Almost any the resultant membranes point to 2D network structures when using PAN-30 fiber membrane as collectors. With increasing Mw from 320,000 to 1,100,000, the number density of beads on the fibers significantly decreased due to the enhanced molecular entanglement (Supplementary Fig. 6 and Supplementary Discussion). The flood rate of solution (0.02–0.2 ml h−1) obviously affected the deposition efficiency and character of the nano-net membranes (Supplementary Fig. 7 and Supplementary Discussion).

Properties of 2D nano-nets

Because of the simplicity and flexibility of their methodology, worthy versatility in controlling the material category of the unique 2D nano-nets was possible. Figure 3a shows not only the polymeric nano-nets of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyamide-6 (PA-6), PAN and poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (PMIA), but besides the inorganic nano-nets of TiO2 and carbon obtained by combining with a calcination process. The watchful analysis of these nano-nets indicated that the polymeric nets showed a fiber diameter achieve of 20–40 nm, while TiO2 and carbon nano-nets achieved even smaller diameters of 14.4 and 17.4 nm, respectively, due to the removal of organic components from their precursor nano-nets, as illustrated in Fig. 3b and Supplementary Fig. 8. Although several pieces of similar networks can subsist institute in holey/lacey carbon or cellulose nanocrystal films after instable polymer/solvent evaporation26,27, large-scale fabrication of such nanofibrous networks has never before been reported46,47. Here, they can easily fabricate a PVDF nano-net membrane with an locality of 55 × 70 cm2 (Supplementary Fig. 9 and Supplementary Discussion). Benefiting from their legal nanoscale diameters, the nano-nets exhibited greatly enhanced Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET)-specific surface areas of 30–72 m2 g−1 compared to <10 m2 g−1 of conventional electrospun nanofibers and <15 m2 g−1 of their previously prepared nanofiber/webs24. The respective pot surface areas for these nano-nets are presented in Fig. 3c and Supplementary Fig. 10. This result suggests the promising potential of their nano-nets for consume as high-performance sensors, catalyst matrices, optics and photovoltaics48,49,50,51. As indicated in Fig. 3d and Supplementary Fig. 11, the unique 2D network structures endowed their assembled membranes with extremely minute pore sizes of 200–300 nm while maintaining a strikingly low thickness of <100 nm and tall porosity of >99.25%. Moreover, the pore distribution of the nano-nets was rather uniform, as illustrated in Supplementary Fig. 12. In dramatic contrast, allowing the control electrospun nanofiber membranes to own a pore size of ~300 nm required a thickness of at least 5 μm, and their porosities were much lower and usually in the achieve of 60–80%18,24. In addition, their direct electronetting process resulted in an obviously enhanced crystallinity and β-phase transition of PVDF; the germane Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results are shown in Supplementary Fig. 13. In contrast to PVDF powder (crystallinity of 43% and β-phase fraction of 56%), the PVDF nano-nets exhibited the crystallinity of 55% and β-phase fraction of 85%, due to the synergetic sequel of the enhanced electric domain poling, uniaxially mechanical stretching and the ion-dipole interaction (Supplementary Discussion), indicating their potential application in high-performance piezoelectric devices and biomedical implants7,45,52.

Fig. 3

Superior properties of various self-assembled nano-nets. a Typical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyamide-6 (PA-6), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (PMIA), TiO2 and carbon self-assembled nano-nets. Scale bars in (a), 300 nm. b Fiber diameter, c Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface locality and d pore size of the various nano-nets in (a). foundation weight of the membranes used in (d), ~0.05 g m−2. e Microtensile-strain curve of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) self-assembled nano-nets. The inset image in (e) shows a micromechanical tensile tester for a single nanofiber. f SEM images of PVDF nano-nets at different tensile elongations (ε) during a continuous stretching process. Scale bars in (f), 300 nm. g Schematic description of the evaluation of the self-assembled nano-nets under continuous tensile deformation. h Photographs of dynamic measurements of water adhesion (top) and water permeation (bottom) on the surface of PVDF and PAN nano-nets, respectively. i Snapshot images of ultrathin free-standing PVDF self-assembled nano-nets at different transparencies. j Transparency values of PVDF nano-nets with different foundation weights. The inset in (j), the corresponding transmittance-thickness curve. Dotted line in (j), 95% transmittance. error bars in (b–d, j) depict s.d.

Besides the striking nanostructural features, the nano-nets besides exhibited exotic mechanical properties, surface wettability and light transmittance. Using a single-nanofiber tensile tester, they performed dynamic microtensile measurement of the single-layered PVDF nano-nets, and a typical collected curve is illustrated in Fig. 3e. In dramatic contrast to the unrecovered and monotonous deformation of traditional nanofiber membranes, 2D nano-nets can abide a tensile strain as tall as 13% without fracture and own a tensile energy of 875 MPa, revealing a typical deformation regime usually observed in mesh-like materials12,13,39. To gain insight into this unique deformation, they performed SEM observation of the entire stretching process up to a ε of 40%, and the images are shown in Fig. 3f. Nano-nets without tensile strain (ε = 0%) typically demonstrated a 2D topological network structure. Subsequently, stretching restricted the nanowires to orient increasingly in a plane parallel to the stretching direction, leading to a dynamic deformation from mesh to slit and producing a slowly increased linear elastic deportment within ε of 0–13%. Then, the major nanowires were tightly stretched and almost parallel to one another, thus inducing a rapidly increased and nonlinear deformation deportment within 13–20% ε. Beyond 20% ε, some junctions between adjacent units were broken first, thus causing the remaining nanowires act as a bundle of nanofibers, showing another slowly increased linear elastic deformation before final structural failure. Based on these results, they further proposed a three-regime fracture mechanism; the schematic showing the unique gradient deformation involving net deformation and net fracture of 2D nano-nets is presented in Fig. 3g.

The fascinating advantages of the 2D nano-nets can subsist further demonstrated in terms of their surface wettability and light transmittance. Using a high-speed camera, the dynamic wetting deportment of the nano-nets was monitored. The top images in Fig. 3h depict a 3 μl droplet touching and then detaching from PVDF nano-nets. After replete contact with the membrane surface, the droplet was then lifted to leave the surface, showing almost no deformation, thus suggesting superhydrophobicity and low water adhesion. This result can subsist ascribed to the enhanced hydrophobicity of PVDF nano-nets derived from their nanoscale surface roughness and tall porosity according to the Cassie model19,53. Evidence of the surface roughness arose from the SEM and atomic oblige microscopy (AFM) observations of PVDF nano-nets (Supplementary Fig. 14 and Supplementary Discussion). In contrast, the PAN nano-nets exhibited a superior water-adhesion behavior. As illustrated in Fig. 3h (bottom), on PAN nano-net surface, the water droplet spread out quickly (1.2 s), and a negligible contact angle was achieved, indicating superhydrophilicity and tall porosity. any these enhanced wettability characteristics can subsist explained by the selective capillary sequel of the nano-nets according to the Laplace theory, which is due to the synergistic sequel of the porous nanofibrous structure and material nature. In addition to this superior wettability, the other crucial property for many advanced materials used for electrical devices, bioengineering, optical imaging, etc., light transmittance, was then evaluated. Figure 3i shows photographs of the free-standing PVDF nano-nets with transmittance of ~99.2%, ~97% and ~95%, which can easily allow the sun's rays to shine through, enabling lighting and direct viewing. Both the distant view of buildings and the nearby view of a flower could subsist seen clearly through a PVDF nano-net membrane with a transmittance of ~95%. No such free-standing nanofiber membranes own ever been reported. The transmittances of their PVDF nano-nets with different foundation weights or thicknesses are presented in Fig. 3j. Because of the reduced reflection of <30 nm nanowires and the ultrathin thickness of <0.1 μm, the nano-net membranes with foundation weights of 12.5, 25.3, 53.5 and 75.8 mg m−2 achieved 99.1, 98.6, 97.4 and 95.1% transmittance, respectively.

Functionality of 2D nano-nets

Particulate matter (PM) pollution has become a significant burden on global economies and public health54,55,56,57. Individually, the public tackles this issue using outdoor protective tools, such as facial masks, which are usually of low efficiency, bulky and resistant to airflow, while indoor air character commonly relies on expensive and energy-intensive air filtration using ventilation systems or central air conditioning. Here, the integrated properties of minute pore size, tall porosity and tall light transmittance allowed the PVDF nano-nets to act as a transparent air filter for windows that used natural passive ventilation to protect indoor air quality. As illustrated in Figs. 3j, 4a, their nano-net filters exhibited excellent removal efficiencies at various transparencies. Filters with a foundation weight of 15.5 mg m−2 showed 95.735% removal for PM0.3, 99.028% removal for PM1 and 99.972% removal for PM2.5 at ~98% transmittance; an increased foundation weight of 44.7 mg m−2 resulted in 99.856% removal for PM0.3, 99.993% removal for PM1 and 100% removal for PM2.5 at ~97% transmittance. In addition, any these filters showed pressure drops of <30 Pa. More strikingly, their PVDF nano-net filter with 75.8 mg m−2 could achieve a PM0.3 removal efficiency of 99.9992%, which qualified for the standard of ultralow penetration air (ULPA) filters of >99.999%. Meanwhile, at an airflow velocity of 5.33 cm s−1, the pressure drop of this ULPA filter was only 0.05% of the atmospheric pressure (52 Pa), which was negligible. Therefore, any these nano-net filters showed robust character factors for PM0.3, PM1 and PM2.5 removal (Supplementary Fig. 15 and Supplementary Discussion). A comparison between the efficacy of their prepared nano-net filters and the reported records is presented in Fig. 4b. Most existing transparent air filters, such as PAN, PA-6 and polyimide nanofibers, only achieved effective removal for PM2.5 or PM10 at a limited transmittance of <90%, due to their larger fiber diameters of >100 nm and stacking structures54,55,56. In dramatic contrast, their nano-net filters exhibited a superior removal capacity for smaller and more-penetrating particles (PM0.3 and PM1) by virtue of their 2D network structure with minute pore size (Supplementary Fig. 16a and Supplementary Discussion), while having a lighter weight and thinner thickness, imposing a higher border on light transmittance. Besides these advantages, the nano-nets can operate in the transition flood regime due to their tall Knudsen number (Kn) of 5.3 (Supplementary Table 4)17,28. This result indicates a greatly enhanced slip sequel for airflow, leading to a significantly reduced drag oblige on the nanowires and, thus, extremely low air resistance. In addition, they besides studied the long-term recycling operational performance of PVDF nano-net filters for purifying smoke PM2.5 and PM10 from >500 and >700 μg m−3 (extremely hazardous level) to <35 μg m−3 (excellent level), as illustrated in Supplementary Fig. 17 and Supplementary Methods. A 25 cm2 PVDF nano-net membrane could accomplish a purification process within just 15 min, and this performance remained almost unchanged, even after 15 purification cycles.

Fig. 4

Functionality for applications of air filtration, liquid separation, electric conduction and bioprotective activity. a The NaCl PM0.3, PM1 and PM2.5 removal efficiencies and pressure drops of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nano-net air filters with different foundation weights. b The removal efficiencies of selected nanofiber materials at different transmittance values. c Rejection efficiencies and permeate fluxes of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nano-net filters with different foundation weights. The inset of (c) contains photos showing the process of liquid separation driven by gravity. d The cycling separation performance of the PAN nano-net filter. Filter foundation weight in (d), ~275 mg m−2. e The electrical conductivities of selected carbon materials (carbon black, carbon nanotube (CNT), carbon nanofiber (CNF), graphene and carbon nano-nets) in two forms, bulks and isolated blocks. The solid data boxes correspond to assembled compacts, and the dashed data boxes correspond to their isolated structure blocks. The box represents the interquartile range, the heart line in the box is the median and the whiskers depict 1.5 times the interquartile range. f The removal efficiencies and killing efficiencies against S. aureus of TiO2 nanofibers and nano-nets. Nano-nets-1, ~50 mg m−2. Nano-nets-2, ~120 mg m−2. Dotted line in (f), 100% efficiency. error bars in (a, c, f) depict s.d.

Because of the extremely minute pore size while maintaining ultrathin thickness combined with the numerous channels derived from the tall porosity and superhydrophilicity, effective application of liquid separation by PAN nano-nets was expected. As described in Fig. 4c (inset), using dead-end filtration device, 100 ppm TiO2 nanoparticle (diameter 200–400 nm) suspension was directly poured on the prewetted PAN nano-net membrane to test its separation performance. Consequently, this separation process was solely gravity-driven. The water immediately permeated through the nano-net membrane, whereas the particles were captured on the surface. Figure 4c demonstrates the separation performances of PAN nano-net membranes under an external driving pressure of 5 kPa. This separation process is shown in Supplementary Fig. 18. PAN nano-net membranes with foundation weights of 50.5, 95.3, 185 and 275 mg m−2 showed rejection efficiencies of 58.52, 84.69, 99.15 and 99.92% together with permeate fluxes of 21,360 ± 1050, 12,300 ± 820, 4230 ± 480 and 3550 ± 275 L m−2 h−1, respectively. These separation fluxes were almost one order of magnitude higher than those of conventional membranes with similar rejection properties, such as commercial microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes19,58,59. In addition, using a cycling separation test (Supplementary Methods), the reusability of their PAN nano-net membranes was further examined; the obtained performance for 50 min cycling is shown in Fig. 4d. The result indicates that the permeation flux decreased (from ~3500 to 1500 L m−2 h−1) while the rejection efficacy increased (from 99.92% to 99.98%) over time, which could subsist attributed to the generation of a filter cake on the membrane surface. Therefore, this process is a typical surface filtration due to the physical sieving capacity originating from the extremely minute pores of 2D nano-nets. Strikingly, by simple cleaning with water, the permeation flux was completely recovered, a feature that has rarely been institute in other porous separation materials with such rejection efficacy19.

Despite the exceptional electrical conductivity of the isolated structure blocks of different carbon nanomaterials, perhaps the biggest challenge to subsist faced is how to maneuver these blocks to effectively bring their remarkable electrical properties onto the macroscopic level60,61,62,63,64. To achieve this aim, various strategies own been used, including cross-linking, compacting, alignment, etc., but their resultant bulk conductivities were soundless rather low65,66. Here, their findings further testify that a facile carbonization of the as-prepared PAN nano-nets can yield conductive carbon nano-nets, and one layer of such nets even can act as a macroscopic graphene sheet. The carbon nano-nets soundless retained the unique network structure after pyrolysis at 850 °C (Fig. 3a); thus, robust conductivity was expected. As shown in Fig. 4e, most existing highly conductive carbon materials (like carbon black, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene) in bulk configuration point to dramatically decreased conductivity compared with their isolated blocks. For instance, even when metal cross-links were used between graphene sheets instead of physical bonds, conductivities in the achieve of 0.1–20 s cm−1 were reached; however, they were several orders of magnitude below those of graphene sheets (105–106 s cm−1)60,61,65. In contrast, their multilayer carbon nano-nets that functioned as a macroscopic material could easily achieve electrical conductivities ranging from 180 to 750 s cm−1, having five times higher values than those of CNF bulks (1–150 s cm−1) and CNT bulks (20–80 s cm−1); the minute comparison between most of existing electrospun PAN-based CNFs and nano-nets is shown in Supplementary Fig. 19 and Supplementary Discussion. This result could subsist attributed to the integrated and continuous 2D network structure of carbon nano-nets, which led to a continuously and steadily conductive path or network that was difficult to achieve for isolated carbon structure blocks, even when scaled up into mat or paper forms. This handicap supports the consume of carbon nano-nets as a stand-alone material or filler for conductive composites in supercapacitors, batteries, sensors, electromagnetic interference shielding, electrostatic discharge protection, and so on61,64,67.

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) own caused sober public health issues68,69,70. Most existing personal protective rig (PPE), such as bioprotective suits and medical gloves, used to avert EID transmission and infections is usually devoid of antimicrobial activity70. Because of their robust removal efficacy and antibacterial activity, the incorporation of TiO2 nano-nets as a biocidal surface protective layer on PPE was promising. To evaluate the antibacterial activity of their TiO2 nano-nets, they challenged the membrane surface with typical Staphylococcus aureus, and the results are illustrated in Fig. 4f. For the S. aureus removal assay, the control (electrospun TiO2 nanofibers) and TiO2 nano-net membranes with a size of 2.5 cm2 were fed with 5 ml ~1.0 × 108 colony-forming units (CFUs) ml−1 of S. aureus inoculum, and both the feed and filtrate inoculum were assessed by agar plate counting. Due to their unique network structure and extremely minute pore size, the TiO2 nano-nets with foundation weights of 50 and 120 mg m−2 had significantly enhanced removal efficiencies of 80% and 99.999% compared to the TiO2 nanofibers (~20%). The SEM observation indicates that S. aureus particles were firmly captured on the nano-net surface (Supplementary Fig. 16b and Supplementary Discussion). Meanwhile, a contact-killing assay of these samples with and without light irradiation was besides conducted. The control nanofiber samples displayed a low killing efficiency of 30%, even after light irradiation, and a negligible efficiency (2%) without light. In contrast, the TiO2 nano-nets showed effective killing of S. aureus, achieving various contact-killing levels: 75% killing with light and 45% killing without light at 50 mg m−2 foundation weight and 99.99% killing with light and 71% killing without light at 120 mg m−2 foundation weight. Notably, the S. aureus killed by anatase TiO2 having robust antibacterial capacity (Supplementary Fig. 20) were continuously attached and filtered by the nano-nets, avoiding the re-pollution of the pathogens (Supplementary Fig. 16c). This result indicates TiO2 nano-nets own similar antimicrobial efficacy and 1/10 weight of cutting-edge antibacterial nanofiber membranes70. The nanoscale diameter (14.4 nm), surface filtration role and ultrathin property of TiO2 nano-nets were amenable for their robust S. aureus killing performance: the ultrathin thickness admitted sufficient light to uphold the photoinduced antibacterial activity on the enlarged surface area, facilitating the rapid killing of S. aureus captured on the net surface. Their findings point to that TiO2 nano-nets can serve as an effective biocidal layer that not only intercepts but besides kills pathogens, suggesting intriguing potential applications in bioprotective PPE against increasing EID threats.

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