650-316 exam Dumps Source : SP Video phase II - Media Satellite and(R) Broadcast
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Test title : SP Video phase II - Media Satellite and(R) Broadcast
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Cisco’s lengthy-standing perception has at complete times been that businesses deserve to evolve to power ahead and lead through market transitions. The equal is prerogative for their govt talent. Evolving their ability requires placing them in unusual roles, expanding their standpoint and skill sets and bringing spotless ideas and energy to the business. here's what we’ve recently executed with Edzard Overbeek’s unusual pushover from SVP of their Asia-Pacific-Japan status to travel of their world capabilities trade and Bruce Klein’s circulation from SVP of Public Sector sales to the top of their worldwide accomplice corporation.
over the final year, we've refocused their engineering organization for agility, greater resolution making, and a renewed focal point on innovation. The market share numbers talk for themselves and their consumer self assurance has under no circumstances been more advantageous. they beget a powerful leadership group and the trade community leaders beget tested astounding execution. Now the time is arrogate for us to pressure the subsequent section of their organizational evolution.
With that, they are joyful to declar Padmasree Warrior will extend her function to become Cisco’s Chief technology and approach Officer where she should exist answerable for selecting consumer and industry transitions and determining Cisco’s fashion to maneuver them. Padma will labor closely with Cisco’s engineering, box, operations and functions management, and should define strategy, investments, acquisitions and the evolution of Cisco’s expertise accomplice ecosystem. additionally, Padma should exist accountable for notion leadership round Cisco’s items and architectures, technical talent progress and recruiting, and she or he will boost her time with external stakeholders. The company neighborhood CTO’s will record dotted line to Padma to allow astounding alignment between expertise approach, trade strategy and M&A undertaking. during the final 4 years, Padma has based an immense song checklist of effects, such as pile Cisco’s approach and execution around architectures, cloud, accustomed know-how fashion framework, and attracting and setting up industry leading technical skill. They appear to exist ahead to accelerating their market position beneath Padma’s strategic course.
After 13 years of high-quality service to Cisco, Ned Hooper will exist leaving the immediate Cisco household to kindhearted an unbiased funding partnership enterprise and to pursue his goal to exist a primary investor. Ned has been working on his device with us over a number of months, and they appear forward to partnering with him in his unusual endeavor. Ned has a unique ardour and talent for funding and strategy, and should focus on this within the subsequent piece of his profession. Ned pioneered the model for gigantic-scale M&A at Cisco and drove gigantic transactions for the trade similar to Tandberg, WebEx, Airespace, Starent and NDS. moreover, he has managed their $2B funding portfolio with each strategic and fiscal returns to the business. Ned’s fashion and enterprise progress crew will now document to Padma. we'd want to thank Ned for his contributions, management, friendship and his persistent drive to complete the time accomplish the prerogative factor for Cisco.
at last, Pankaj Patel will import on the management of Cisco’s engineering company. Pankaj will pressure innovation, operational excellence and agile pile across their items, solutions and architectures, and proceed to extend their relevance with their expanding consumer base. Pankaj’s deep consumer relationships and wide engineering knowledge, combined together with his capacity to mentor and develop suitable engineering talent will serve Cisco neatly as they obligate the next section of engineering leadership for the business. whilst you may well exist generic with Pankaj’s carrier provider journey, he in the past spent sixteen years within the enterprise house. during the final 13 years, Pankaj developed and grew Cisco’s provider company enterprise which these days debts for about 35% of Cisco’s direct product income. Pankaj’s management in key provider issuer areas akin to core routing, piece routing, SP mobility and SP video has positioned Cisco extraordinarily neatly for the long run. complete over his tenure Pankaj has delivered a significant number of items to the Cisco portfolio, addressing a wide array of consumer needs. during the final year because the co-chief of engineering, Pankaj has extended his involvement in Cisco’s commercial enterprise company, as the intersection facets between service issuer and commercial enterprise attain nearer together.
As they stay concentrated on being the most profitable Cisco for their purchasers, partners, investors and personnel today, they not ever lose music of the status they are looking to travel sooner or later. we're enthusiastic about this evolution in their firm. please connect us in congratulating Padma, Pankaj and Ned on the next piece of their respective journeys.
John Chambers and Gary Moore
through specific information carrier
CHENNAI : Chief Minister Edappadi k Palaniswami inaugurated 13 unusual parks in quite a lot of constituents of Chennai on Monday, and commissioned the underground sewerage amenities, developed at a expense of 35 crore at Soorpattu in Madhavaram zone besides an identical underground sewerage amenities at Puthagaram and Kathirvedu at a complete cost of Rs.60 crore, throughout the video conferencing facility on the Secretariat. the executive minister commissioned and inaugurated various works completed at a complete impregnate of 103.forty crores.
The 13 parks are located at Ramachandra road in Santhosh Nagar (Mugalivakkam), Tsunami Quarters (AIR Nagar) in Ennore, Balakrishna Nagar, Vegetarian Village (Puzhal), Puthagaram, Padmavathi Nagar carrier highway, Padmavathi Nagar in Kathirvedu, Seventh road, Ponniammanmedu and Thanikachalam Nagar, VIP Nagar in Mogappair, Veermamunivar highway, Annai Velankanni Nagar phase-II (Mugalivakkam) and Rajiv Gandhi street (Sollinganallur).
the chief minister additionally inaugurated children’s playgrounds at TVS Colony forty fifth road and Officers Colony in Ambattur zone and workplace structures for Municipal administration department. Municipal Administration Minister SP Velumani, bucolic Industries Minister P Benjamin, Chennai company Commissioner D Karthikeyan and senior officers were current on the event.
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The terminate of analog television is at hand. Pundits beget predicted the death of analog before, but such forecasts were couched in caveats. Now governments are setting firm dates and planning for life after analog, when vast amounts of bandwidth will become available for unusual uses and the broadcast TV scene will change.
Around the world, governments beget begun the analog shutdown, and it will accelerate rapidly during the next five years. In Germany, Berlin killed off analog in 2003, Munich did it this year [see photo, “Getting Ready”], and the repose of the nation is scheduled to result suit by 2010. In the United States, Congress likely will legislate January 2009 as the shutoff date. The end-of-analog date in France is 2010. In Japan, it’s 2011. The United Kingdom, which turned off analog broadcasts in one Welsh community this year as an experiment, is slated to phase out analog completely by the terminate of 2012.
After analog television is phased out, digital over-the-air transmission will exist the only game in town for those receiving free TV signals through antennas.
If television comes to you by cable or satellite, you won’t notice a thing. Satellite television is already digital, and so is much of cable. But eventually you will harvest diverse rewards that you might not even connect to changes in TV broadcasting: better cellphone reception, opportunities to download video to your cellphone [see illustration, “Playing Soon”], and mobile broadband Internet. And, in the United States, you might remark a modest douse in the federal budget deficit when the government sells off 108 megahertz of the old-fashioned analog broadcast spectrum for as much as US $50 billion, by some estimates.
If you accomplish rely on broadcast television, you’ll notice the changes even sooner. The first one might exist a puny painful: you’ll need a unusual TV set or, at minimum, a unusual tuner costing at least $100 [see sidebar, “Countdown to the End”]. With a unusual high-definition set, you’ll remark a sizable improvement in the TV picture. Most digital programming is broadcast in HD, which brings the crisp, minute images so prized by sports fans (who are determined never to lose sight of the ball or puck) and feared by intelligence anchors (who know that viewers can remark every bit of makeup they plaster on). Along with those acute pictures comes digital gird sound—if you add the speakers.
In some countries, mainly in Europe, broadcasters beget no plans for terrestrial broadcast of high-definition television. Nevertheless, digital broadcasting should bring other potential benefits. Some broadcasters may route out multiple standard-definition channels, perhaps “narrowcasting” shows to niche audiences or providing supplementary material, such as an interactive experience, with regular shows.
In any massive technology change, particularly one with so much money at stake, there are winners and losers. I’ll accept to those. But first, to understand why this enormously valuable piece of the spectrum will soon exist up for grabs in an unprecedented high-tech rush, they beget to travel back to the late 1990s.
The United States was the first country to broadcast digital TV, in 1998, and its mechanism was basically followed by other countries in their own systems. So the U.S. undergo is illustrative.
In the late 1990s, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) loaned each TV broadcaster a second channel in the existing broadcast bands, 54 through 806 MHz. Interspersed among the broadcast channels are some spectrum gaps that minimize interference between them. To further minimize interference, the FCC skipped unavoidable channels in a geographic region; for example, if channel 4 is assigned in one metropolitan area, the nearest channel 3 broadcaster is in a different metropolitan area. The skipped channels are known as taboo channels.
Each channel occupies 6 MHz, and that hasn’t changed. Rather, because digital transmission is less interfering and besides less subject to interference, and because digital channels operate at lower power levels than their analog counterparts, the FCC assigned second channels into analog taboo channels. The FCC deemed the modest extend in the overall level of interference acceptable during the transition.
At the time of the bandwidth loan, Congress set year-end 2006 as the date when analog service would officially cease and the extra channels would exist “returned.” At that point, the digital channels, with their low interference characteristics, could exist repacked into less bandwidth—a swath between 54 and 698 MHz. The pushover would free 108 MHz of spectrum—the upper terminate of the UHF band, or TV channels 52 to 69—for other uses. To status the potential value of that 108 MHz in perspective, note that the entire AM radio spectrum is less than 1.2 MHz. complete local district networks using IEEE 802.11b and 802.11g, the most common forms of Wi-Fi, occupy just 83.5 MHz. Congress looked forward to a lucrative spectrum auction to wait on poise the federal budget.
The 2006 date, however, came with a caveat: on a market-by-market basis, at least 85 percent of households would beget to own at least one television that could receive digital signals.
It has been pellucid for months that the 85 percent criterion will not exist met next year, so the U.S. device will exist delayed [see sidebar, “Countdown to the End”]. But for how long? Now, many of the affected players—consumer electronics and computer manufacturers, along with communications and other companies interested in using the recaptured spectrum—do not want a “soft date.” Instead, they beget been agitating for a hard one, with no further casual of delay.
Although Congress has yet to pass legislation to set such a date, both the House of Representatives and the Senate seemed in late summer 2005 to exist converging on 1 January 2009.
Shortly before any hard date, the party rush will begin. Congress, avid for the money, is pushing the FCC to start the auctions as soon as possible. The Congressional Budget Office is advising that the auctions exist delayed until after other, unrelated spectrum auctions are completed. Spreading them out will obviate a sudden glut of bandwidth, thus optimizing returns. Auction winners would require a year or two to assemble the money they’d need to invest in developing their newly acquired spectrum segments. So for them, if bandwidth is to become available at the terminate of 2008, auctions in late 2006 or early 2007 would exist ideal.
“Beachfront Spectrum” is what analysts are calling that soon-to-be-auctioned upper 108 MHz, because it is model for cellular services. Signals at those frequencies propagate farther and penetrate buildings better than signals in today’s cellular bands, which travel up to 1.9 gigahertz. Best of all, cellphone system operators anticipate infrastructure costs to exist reduced by 90 percent, because fewer cells will exist required, given the longer distances signals will travel.
Thanks to such advantages, the cellular phone companies are likely to compete hard for this valuable bandwidth. Exactly what they would accomplish with it is a closely guarded secret, at least until winning bidders are selected. Nevertheless, it’s not hard to imagine the winners launching third-generation services, including mobile video and wide-band Internet access, which would enable cellphone users to receive video programming and e-mail on the run.
The FCC’s huge menu of allowable uses for the unusual frequencies identifies “[f]lexible fixed, mobile, and broadcast uses, including mobile and other digital unusual broadcast operations; fixed and mobile wireless commercial services, as well as fixed and mobile wireless uses for private, internal radio needs. Could besides embrace two-way interactive, cellular, and mobile television broadcasting services.”
Perhaps the best early indicators of what will happen with the freed-up bandwidth are recent events in Berlin—the first city to rotate off analog television—and in the United States, where a couple of preemptive auctions gave developers access to segments of spectrum on the condition that they not meddle with broadcasters soundless using them.
The “Berlin Switch” is an intriguing novelty. It was feasible because the region affected is relatively small, with 1.8 million households in the TV market, and because an overwhelming number of those households—all but 160 000—subscribe to cable or satellite television. Nonsubscribers each coughed up at least $200 to buy a set-top converter, and for less than $1 million, the government subsidized the purchase for families on welfare.
What the switch gave Berliners, mainly, was an extend in the number of broadcast stations—from 12 to 27. Multiplexing allows four digital channels to fitting in the space previously allotted to a solitary analog channel. (This excludes HD broadcasts, because they require more bandwidth.) The switch besides gave the government 35 MHz to use—or sell—for unusual services.
With more channels, viewers of broadcast television in Berlin beget access to niche programming and channels previously available only to cable or satellite subscribers. Programming now includes Eurosport; Arte, with technique movies, documentaries, poetry, and theater; Phoenix, with political news; Viva II, with pop culture for people in their 20s; and several unusual local channels.
In the United States, in 2001 and 2002, the FCC auctioned off four minuscule slices of spectrum totaling 6 MHz in the 746- to 806-MHz range, the upper 700-MHz band, that had been allocated as “guard bands.” Along with the prerogative to employ the spectrum came tight rules to minimize interference with public-safety services. This RF true estate is intended for the rental market: the buyers will act as landlords, leasing the spectrum to third parties. The FCC packaged the spectrum in two pieces for 52 market areas, creating 104 licenses, which were auctioned for $540 million. The top three winners were Access Spectrum, Nextel, and Pegasus Communications.
Access Spectrum LLC, in Bethesda, Md., winner of 21 licenses, announced at the time that it had begun negotiating rental agreements. In addition, Access, formed in 2000, is likely to build private wireless networks for businesses in some of its bands.
Plans of the other winners are murkier. Nextel is using its 40 licenses as bargaining chips and recently agreed to recur them to the FCC as piece of a deal involving interference reduction in the 800-MHz band. Pegasus won 34 of the 104 licenses but has been Quiet about its plans. The largest independent provider of the DirecTV satellite service, Pegasus is having fiscal problems, and some of its subsidiaries filed Chapter 11 bankruptcies in 2004.
Then, in 2002 and 2003, the FCC auctioned off 18 MHz between 698 and 746 MHz, which covers three UHF channels, 54, 55, and 59. Again the spectrum was packaged into geographical pieces, both to exist attractive to buyers and to maximize returns. Channel 55 was sold in six regional chunks, while 54 and 59 were sold as a pair in 734 markets. Altogether the sales brought the U.S. government $145 million.
Qualcomm Inc., of San Diego, won the auction for the spectrum previously occupied by channel 55 in five of the six auctions. It then bought the rights for the sixth region from Aloha Partners LP, of Providence, R.I. Aloha was formed to provide wireless broadband service and has been a sizable player in the auctions so far.
Qualcomm intends to employ its spectrum to route video and audio programming to cellphones, PDAs, and other portable devices nationwide. It hasn’t announced what it intends to broadcast, but the content could embrace hit TV shows, clips of sporting events, and movie trailers. The company calls its service MediaFLO (“Media” plus “Forward Link Only”). Qualcomm plans to store video in the handsets to supplement video streamed live; that way, it hopes to eliminate the dropouts endemic to cellphone reception. If a voice signal drops out temporarily, you can just say, “What?” Video signal dropouts, however, cause annoying freezes, jerks, or blanks in the picture, and would discourage users.
Qualcomm is developing MediaFLO as a artery to promote CDMA cellphone technology, which it pioneered. CDMA is winning out over the TDMA gauge (popular in the United States) and is emerging as a tough competitor to GSM (popular in Europe). Today, CDMA is used in 35 countries, including the United States and South Korea. Qualcomm plans to integrate MediaFLO into its chip sets and to proffer the service through partnerships with cellphone operators. It may eventually spin it off as a divide company.
Technology alternatives to MediaFLO are available and could exist used for competing services in spectrum bands yet to exist auctioned. One illustration is a variant of the Digital Video Broadcasting gauge widely adopted in Australia, Europe, India, and elsewhere. The variant, called DVB-H, provides TV broadcasts to handheld devices and, devotion MediaFLO, is being used in the 700-MHz band. In South Korea, yet another gauge for TV broadcasting to handhelds is being deployed—Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting, or T-DMB—and it may emerge as a competitor in the United States.
Have you ever found yourself on a train, in a park, or at a ball game wishing you could pay a bill you’d forgotten about, or route a quick message, or download a tune stuck in your mind? According to Aloha, there are enough people who want to exist “always on” to uphold a nationwide mobile broadband Internet service. The company, which resold its channel 55 spectrum to Qualcomm, was the sizable victor in the 54/59 channel-pair auctions. Aloha won 125 out of the 734 regional auctions and increased its holdings by buying the other two sizable winners. Aloha claims it now has spectrum in 244 of the 734 licensed markets, covering 175 million potential customers, including 100 percent coverage in the nation’s 10 largest markets and 84 percent coverage in the top 40 markets.
Though not revealing which technologies it will deploy, Aloha did declar final year that it would launch a 2005 market trial of mobile broadband Internet access using Flash-OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing). Developed by Flarion Technologies Inc., in Bedminster, N.J., Flash-OFDM is a spread-spectrum technology that uses the Internet Protocol. Signals jump quickly from frequency to frequency within a given channel in a seemingly random pattern generated by an algorithm. The resulting signal causes minimal interference with those in the selfsame and neighboring channels and is itself not easily interfered with. Different ground stations employ different hopping patterns, further reducing interference and allowing the bandwidth to exist used efficiently. The FCC recently granted Aloha consent to rush a market test in Tucson, Ariz., presumably of Flash-OFDM.
Two auctions held so far accounted for just 24 MHz of the 108 MHz that will eventually exist sold. Of the 84 MHz remaining, in 1997 the FCC reserved 24 MHz for public-safety communications, such as police and fire services—those located at four of today’s UHF TV channels, 63, 64, 68, and 69. Since the 9/11 attacks on the United States, Congress has been paying a lot of attention to the public-safety communications plan, originally with puny fanfare. In fact, congressional eagerness to reallocate the swath of spectrum is the main impetus behind a drive to set a firm date for the transition to digital television. The redeem Lives Act of 2005, introduced in the Senate in June, calls for expediting the reassignment of the spectrum for public-safety purposes and requires spectrum to exist taken back from broadcasters by 1 January 2009.
Although Congress is driving the agenda to free portions of spectrum for public-safety use, local governments will determine how they will exist used. Metropolitan-area governments, for example, would devotion to alleviate the congestion that plagues existing emergency services. They are concerned with voice and text transmission, already in use, and are looking to add wideband transmission of images. On-the-scene images can wait on emergency responders and their dispatchers. With broadband access to stored records, fire or police teams could review pile plans and blueprints.
After the auctions held so far and the allocation for emergency services, 60 MHz of the bandwidth to exist vacated by analog television remains to exist sold [see illustration, “The FCC Auction Plan”]. This section, consisting of channels 52, 53, 56 to 58, 60 to 62, and 65 to 67, is slated to exist divided into five blocks. Four of the five will exist channel pairs: 52 and 57, 53 and 58, a pair of 5-MHz channels in 60 and 65, and a pair of 10-MHz channels in 61 to 62 and 66 to 67. Channel pairs can best exist used for services that require the selfsame capacity in each direction, devotion today’s cellphone services.
The fifth obstruct will consist of today’s channel 56, which is better suited for one-way transmission, such as broadcasting to cellphones. It could besides exist used for services that can utilize an existing cellphone channel as the recur path—for example, video on demand, in which your request is phoned in and then the material is sent to your cellphone over the broadband channel. The FCC plans to proffer the blocks in six regional areas, making it simpler for well-funded companies planning to roll out national services to assemble bandwidth.
Illustration: Bryan Christie
The sale of the five blocks will complete the reallocation. The oft-quoted $50 billion valuation for the 108 MHz may exist too high, given that the first 24 MHz sold netted $685 million and that the 24-MHz public-safety spectrum won’t exist sold at all. The $50 billion number comes from a May 2004 assay by the unusual America Foundation, a Washington, D.C.based public policy institute, citing FCC and other data. On the other hand, it is feasible that the chunks of spectrum auctioned in the first two rounds went cheap because buyers didn’t know when they would actually accept them.
If a firm date is set and the auctions for the remaining spectrum sections are held not too far ahead of that date, the auctions of the remaining 60 MHz could bring the total raised up to $30 billion. Congress is expected to require that a portion of those proceeds, probably less than $5 billion, exist used to fund subsidies to wait on low-income families transmogrify their analog TV sets to digital.
Whenever so much money and infrastructure are at stake, there are inevitably winners and losers. The companies bringing in the bids at the auctions flaunt initially to exist winners, but some of their ventures are bound to fail.
Manufacturers will exist huge winners. unusual services and technologies necessitate unusual equipment. Sales of televisions, studio gear, and other consumer and professional equipment are already growing. soundless to attain are trade opportunities opened by unusual mobile services.
Broadcasters should exist winners. By upgrading their technological backbones, they beget improved their attribute of service and now beget the flexibility to pursue unusual opportunities such as narrowcasting to niche markets. However, while broadcasters beget invested heavily in the digital transition, they beget not yet fully exploited digital’s advantages of higher-definition pictures and unusual services.
Broadcasters beget two strategic advantages over cable and satellite providers. For one, local broadcast stations know their markets in a artery no national programmer can. For another, broadcast television is wireless and eminently portable; viewers don’t beget to plug into the cable network or to a carefully aligned satellite dish. They don’t even beget to find minuscule equatorial spots, since receivers pick up broadcast signals almost anywhere. But broadcasters are only now starting to employ HDTV in their local programming, primarily for news. And U.S. digital service does not uphold mobile service to vehicles and pedestrians with handheld devices. It is telling that reassigned broadcast spectrum is being used to proffer mobile video services that broadcasters themselves are unable to support. Nor is this now a priority for them.
Political leaders might exist losers, if they are perceived as forcing unwanted change and expense on the public. And if the transition is disruptive, they will exist blamed. But overall, governments should exist sizable winners. When the transition is completed, governments will beget served their constituencies well by shifting broadcast television to a superior, more elastic service and by reallocating vacated broadcast spectrum to other useful services.
In the short term, some consumers, particularly the least well-off, will exist losers. They will remark blank, snowy screens on their antenna-fed analog TVs when analog service is terminated. To continue receiving programming, they will need to buy and install digital conversion set-top boxes or switch to cable or satellite service. Either way, it’s going to cost them.
In the end, though, consumers will exist winners, with unusual and improved services available. They will beget access to HDTV’s mighty pictures, accompanied by surround-sound audio. They will beget uniformly high-quality reception anywhere in a broadcast area, and additional services will embrace some within traditional broadcast channels but even more coming in the auctioned broadcast spectrum.
Robert M. Rast (IEEE Senior Member) is industry liaison for Micronas Semiconductors Holding AG and chairman of the board of the Advanced Television Systems Committee, an international standards-setting body. In the 1990s, he was generic Instrument Corp.’s digital HDTV advocate, and in 1993 he became one of the leaders of the newly formed Digital HDTV august Alliance.
Narrator: Baghdad... January 16th, 1991.
Reporter: .... fire coming up there in the air, flashes going off.
CNN Headquarters Manager: Don't you hear air down there? Don't you hear what's on the air, folks?
Narrator: This was the instant that CNN founder Ted Turner had been waiting for.
Ted Turner: I've been an innovative thinker, okay, I mean, I thought of CNN.
Bernard Shaw, CNN Anchor: The skies over Baghdad beget been illuminated.
Narrator: His rivals had once called his brainchild "Chicken Noodle News"; but at the start of the Gulf War, the gross world was watching CNN, the first 24-hour TV intelligence network.
CNN Headquarters Manager: I know, but this is where it's happening!
Porter Bibb, Biographer: Ted Turner and CNN status the viewer in the middle of history, as it was unfolding, and that was revolutionary.
Ken Auletta, Turner Biographer: You reflect the CIA had more information than CNN did? Of course not.
Reporter in Baghdad: That came down fairly near their hotel...
Robert Goldberg, Turner Biographer: [When] Ted Turner [started] CNN ... it worried the crap out of the people who were working with him.
CNN Headquarters Manager: accept the French on the air!
Ted Turner: If you've got an innovative idea, and the majority does not pooh-pooh your idea, then you must not beget a very sterling idea.
Russell Simmons: Now to the press conference.
Narrator: No one had believed in Russell Simmons's thought either. But he ended up with a multi-million empire in hip hop fashion, comedy and poetry...He even produced an acclaimed flaunt on Broadway....
Def Poetry Jam, Opening Night on Broadway, November 2002
Def Poetry Jam Poet: ...it was poetry, but now they call it rap.
Narrator: And it complete started when he unleashed a controversial unusual kindhearted of music in America, rap.
DMX: Bring it. What? They prerogative here...
Russell Simmons: Sometimes they talk about rap and how people don't devotion to hear what the rappers are saying. That's God's soundtrack.
Alex Ogg: If you're wondering why so many white kids are impersonating black culture ... it's complete to accomplish with the artery that Russell Simmons has marketed the phenomenon which is hip hop.
DMX: Here they travel again...
Sir Harold Evans, Author, "They Made America": Russell Simmons produced the browning of America, in the sense that a culture which was born in the ghetto became universal.
Narrator: Russell Simmons and Ted Turner brought the world closer together.
Russell Simmons: Give me a minute, alright?
Narrator: You may not know their stories, but they made America.
Ted Turner: For awhile, it's gonna exist out of control.
Russell Simmons: Thank you, uh, thank you complete for being here.
Control elbowroom Director: complete right, stand by twenty-three, xxx on three...Ted Turner (arriving at Atlanta Press Club): sterling evening.Control Room: Dissolve, complete right...
CNN Announcer: CNN's complete coverage of today's...
Control elbowroom Director: 40 seconds...Houston, you're clear.
Ted Turner (Atlanta Press Club speech): I couldn't beget done any of this without a lot of help....
Control Room: Roll C...
Ted Turner: They complete did it together.
Control Room: 30 seconds...
Robert Goldberg: Ted Turner's innovation was 24-hour news...(and) what that means is that...you can watch history live.
Control elbowroom Director: We're coming back.
CNN Announcer: We're live in Baghdad...
Robert Goldberg: You can watch history as it's happening. ... So they watch to view back, and they say, 'Well, obviously, CNN was going to exist a sizable success.' But in fact, when it was started, there was no indication at complete that it was going to exist a success, and in fact, they were teetering on the edge.
Ted Turner: I lived for ten years, during that time, I lived in my office on a foldout bed.
Harold Evans: One of Ted Turner's mighty qualities: He makes us excited about everything he does. He's not a man in a grey flannel suit.
Ken Auletta, Turner Biographer: When he was working his 24-hour days, I mean, he was driven by a covet to accept it right. And piece of his drive in life is to prove to his father that he's worthy.
Robert Goldberg: Ted's father was a billboard magnate. He had a billboard company...He was expanding and doing better and better and he did this one sizable deal where he bought out generic Outdoor Advertising. And this was his sizable break. Ted was incredibly excited. His father originally was very excited but soon started to accept scared. He was worried that he was overextended. He was worried that this gross empire would attain crashing down. [So]...It was the morning of March 5, 1963, and Ted Turner's father went downstairs, and he had a sizable replete breakfast. Then he went upstairs, took out his revolver, the selfsame revolver he had taught Ted to shoot with, and he killed himself.
Porter Bibb: When Ted's father killed himself that was the ultimate blow to Ted Turner who could never, ever accept his father's approval that he had spent his life, up to that point, seeking.
Robert Goldberg: Ted's father did it in a artery to leave his family -- each of them as millionaires. Ted wasn't interested in being a millionaire. He could beget taken the money, he could beget gone off to exist a millionaire on the Riviera, but instead he says, 'No, I want to acquire this company. I want to flaunt my father, I want to flaunt everybody I can accomplish this.'
Ken Auletta: piece of his mission in his life is to prove to his father that his father was wrong. And in fact, once he looked up at the heavens, and said, 'Dad, are you satisfied now?'
Ted Turner: I used to declare people, when I was in my 20s, that I wanted to accept to the top, and I wanted to accept there in a hurry, not even knowing where the top was.
Go ahead and eat your cereal.
Narrator: Everyone thought Ted Turner was too inexperienced to acquire over his dad's billboard company.
Ted Turner: Well, hustle it up, Chago.
Narrator: But he made money. And in 1970, he splurged on a rundown, money-losing UHF station in Atlanta.
Ted Turner: They changed the call letters to WTCG, and then later to WTBS, for Turner Broadcasting System. But WTCG was 'Watch This Channel Grow."
Robert Goldberg: When Ted buys WTCG, it's a TV station that's....hemorrhaging hundreds of thousands of dollars a month.
Bill Tush: sterling morning. Hope you're doing OK this morning. Morning, Tina.
Robert Goldberg: There was a FCC requirement to status intelligence on. Instead of putting true intelligence on [Turner] had status on crack news.
Bill Tush: Ronald Reagan hopes to beat... [laughs]
Narrator: To wait on fill his programming schedule, Turner bought his hometown losing baseball team -- the Atlanta Braves -- and broadcast their "away" games. Many saw the pushover as a foolhardy gamble, but Turner loved cheering the underdog players.
Ted Turner: Wayne. what accomplish you reflect of this team.
Wayne: I devotion every one of them.
Ted Turner: attain remark the big-league team with little-league spirit. And hey, we're in Atlanta.
Barney: confident hope the bug don't accept down in my larynx.
Robert Goldberg: While everybody else might beget been doing solemn shows or intelligence shows, Ted Turner was rerunning, because it was cheap, 'Gilligan's Island' and 'Leave it to Beaver'
Gilligan: Oh, I gotta go.
Porter Bibb: Ted sold advertisers on the thought that your commercials in color will stand out on their station because everybody else is running color programs and color commercials. But we're running black and white programs. [laughs] And your color commercials will jump out of the set.
Ted Turner: Well, when are they ready?
Narrator: Turner's strategies worked. But soon after his station was in the black, he went into debt again, in a bet-the-company move: Before it was a confident thing, Turner ante on cable.
Music video singer: He was cable, when cable wasn't cool.
Narrator: Turner wanted his local UHF station to exist one of the first national stations offered by the fledging cable industry, which was wiring the country to provide better reception than shows broadcast through the air.
Ted Turner: Heck, complete I did was jump the gun.
Music video singer: Cable wasn't cool.
Narrator: But Turner needed an efficient artery to route his signal to cable companies sprinkled throughout the United States.
Ken Auletta: And he said...you know, this bird just went up in 1976, and that's a satellite. And that satellite, what if they hooked up to that satellite?...Bingo -- innovation.
Music video singer: How can anybody start a network, down were the cotton grows?
Narrator: Turner borrowed money to buy a dish that would beam his Atlanta TV signal 22,000 miles above the earth, bounce it off a rented transponder on a satellite over North America, and beam the signal back down to receiving dishes owned by the country's cable operators.
Ted Turner: By being a Superstation, I can exist super.
Narrator: The networks tried to accept Congress to cease him. But Turner went on a rampage about the network monopoly and beat them.
Music video singer: It really is astounding how he second-guessed those jerks.
Ted Turner: The only disagreement between us and WCBS is that their antenna is 22,000 miles up in the sky instead of 2,000 feet.
Music video singer: He sends out programs day and night, bouncing off his satellite.
Ted Turner: I must exist doing something right.
Music video singer: Cable now is cool.
Narrator: In the summer of 1977, Turner was taking on the established networks. And with a second-hand boat and a youthful crew, he was taking on the refined yachting establishment in the prestigious America's Cup race.
Porter Bibb: [Ted Turner] was definitely not reduce of the selfsame cloth of the other members of the unusual York Yacht Club. He was a loud, obnoxious... and sacrilegious in his language.
Narrator: Turner cherished the role of outsider; he thrived on being the underdog.
Ted Turner: Don't over trim it devotion that. You gotta ease out.
Narrator: By now, it was a close role to him.
Harold Evans: When he first began to pick up his father's billboard business, the recommendation was, 'Don't accomplish it, you'll travel broke. You can't accomplish it, you don't beget enough experience.' When he buys UHF, they said, 'Don't go, it will cost you complete this money.'...'Don't accomplish the Superstation, they can't afford a -- '
Ted Turner: It's complete over, baby. They won!
Harold Evans: Every solitary time he went out on a limb....it was actually devotion a springboard and diving for Ted Turner, and he came down and made a flawless dive.
Narrator: Turner was on a winning streak -- nefarious intelligence for his employees. It usually was a badge that he was growing antsy and about to ante the company on a unusual venture.
Robert Goldberg: Ted Turner loves to beget his back against the wall. ...And if his back isn't against the wall, he'll travel out of his artery to find a wall to status his back up against.
Narrator: In 1979, Turner backed himself against a wall that would acquire or fracture him.
Ted Turner: This industry is out of control. It's devotion a train...
Narrator: At an annual cable meeting, he announced that he would accept an entirely unusual satellite channel up and running in just one year. It would rush only news, 24 hours a day, and it would exist called Cable intelligence Network, or CNN.
Reese Schonfeld, Founding President, CNN: He said, 'There are only four things that television can do. They can accomplish this regular entertainment programming, and the networks beget got that. They can accomplish sports, and ESPN's got that. They can accomplish movies, HBO has that. complete we've got left is news, so what the hell, I'll accomplish news.'
Ted Turner: The industry ought to say, "Stop."
NARRATOR: Twenty-four-hour intelligence was Turner's craziest thought yet. The established networks lost money producing just one intelligence flaunt a day.
Reese Schonfeld: In the days when the networks were everything, you had to watch your intelligence between 7 and 7:30...22 minutes of news...a gross network psychology, philosophy, which said, 'Look, intelligence is a public service. They don't accomplish this to acquire money. ...'
Ted Turner: I beget the advertising companies coming to me and asking me, "Whose gonna acquire it?'
Ken Auletta: So what does Ted Turner do... 'wait a second, he decides, these networks, they beget a half-hour, an appointment at night for a newscast. What if I had 24 hours of news?' Bingo. CNN. Innovation.
Narrator: Turner went to the unusual York Times to pitch his unusual idea.
Robert Goldberg: They were asking them, 'So what's going to exist so mighty about this CNN?' And Ted said, 'Look, it's going to exist live. It's going to exist live complete the time.
Reese Schonfeld: One of the deputy editors turned to me...and said, 'Aren't you with live complete the time...gonna wind up covering a lot of one-alarm fires?' And I said, 'Until it's over, you never know whether it was a one-alarm fire or the fire that burned down Chicago.
Narrator: Turner needed $30 million dollars for start-up costs, and another 2 million per month in operating expenses. He started selling assets -- and he was counting on cable fees and advertising to generate income for CNN...that is, if the industry ever shared his faith in the zany idea.
Harold Evans: It was a universal reaction that Ted Turner would travel bust, he was wasting his time, people didn't want 24-hour news, what were they playing at.
Robert Goldberg: Ted Turner starts CNN without -- with very few commitments from the cable industry and really not much in the artery of financing. He doesn't really beget banks behind him, he doesn't beget money behind him. So it's complete kindhearted of a wing and a prayer, and frankly, it worried the crap out of the people who were working with him.
Ted Turner: If you've got an innovative idea, and the majority does not pooh-pooh your idea, then you must not beget a very sterling idea. It's not enough of a breakthrough to acquire that kindhearted of a difference. It didn't bother me at all. It did not bother me at all. In fact, I considered it -- I said, I must really exist on to something.
Narrator: Now, with weeks to travel before launch, the staff was assembling for rehearsals. There were avid newcomers -- and TV veterans looking for one final romance, one final travel around in hard news.
Bernard Shaw: Roone Arledge and I had negotiated a unusual constrict at ABC News, the country was in double-digit inflation, their children were about this high, and here I was thinking about going to labor for a network that didn't exist.
Narrator: In the dry runs, just days before the launch date, the CNN staff soundless couldn't produce intelligence for two hours in a row, much less 24.
Ted Kavanau, CNN: The rehearsals were a nightmare...people would call for things that weren't ready, the tapes weren't there, the scripts were not completed.
Reese Schonfeld: They started giving me a valium in my orange juice in the morning. But I didn't know anything about it. After a week she stopped, because it wasn't making any difference.
Bernard Shaw: Those demands, says Reagan, are rejected are totally unacceptable.
Bernard Shaw: I wanted to twit the traditional networks. Those people at ABC, CBS, and NBC who said, this will not work, they are inept.... I wanted to connect Ted, along with the other men and women at CNN, to prove those bastards wrong.
Narrator: On June 1, 1980, ready or not, CNN was scheduled to inaugurate broadcast. Turner threw an opening day party.
Robert Goldberg: I reflect what I loved about that opening day is that it was so august and so rinky dink at the selfsame time.
Speaker: ...and only cable television could give the consumer the choice.
Robert Goldberg: It was a network that was kindhearted of devotion its owner, Ted Turner. It was a puny ragged around the edges, but with grand, global ambition.
Ted Turner: You'll notice out in front of me that we've raised three flags -- one, the flag of the United Nations -- because they hope that the Cable intelligence Network will bring a better understanding of how people from different nations live and labor together.
Ken Auletta: Turner wanted to shrink the world. He wanted Americans to understand the world, and not exist isolationist, not exist snug in their puny cocoons.
Ted Turner [opening day speech continues...]: I dedicate the intelligence channel for America: The Cable intelligence Network.
Ted Turner: You know, it was a true sterling plan. It was device to conquer the world, but with ideas, not with weapons.
David Walker: sterling evening, I'm David Walker.
Lois Hart: And I'm Lois Hart. Now here's the news. President Carter has arrived...
Narrator: Inside, CNN started its very first broadcast with puny fanfare. If Turner had it his way, it would continue from this instant until the terminate of time -- that is, if his staff could survive the first few months.
Narrator: Turner had launched CNN during a presidential election year, just six weeks before the Republican Convention. The major networks, which would try to bar CNN from the White House press pool, complete laughed at Turner's unprepared reporters.
Bernard Shaw: Can you button your jacket? There's a lot of white there.
Sandy Kenyon: I'm Sandy Kenyon and I'm the writer-producer here in the booth with Bernie Shaw. These are their convention facilities. Over here...
Sandy Kenyon: The booth that CNN had rented for this convention was about the size of a large bathroom. And it was totally open, and it was above the band. So that when the party played, they had to reduce to a commercial.
Reese Schonfeld At the time their greatest critic was Roone Arledge, who ran ABC News. ABC called us "chicken noodle news," and they used to say, 'Cockle doodle do," when the crew would appear.
Narrator: For his part, Turner was doing everything he could financially to reserve his unusual network afloat.
Reese Schonfeld: They accomplish every stunt they can. The cable systems that carry us, they give them a discount, a large discount if they'll pay in advance. Ted's got equatorial dog money coming in from the concessions at the Braves stadium. He makes the selfsame deal with the concessionaire.
Daniel Schorr: Can you just pull back a second.
Elizabeth Dole: Okay, sure.
Bernard Shaw: [Ted Turner] knew they were working slavish hours. He knew they were underpaid.
Daniel Schorr: Okay, pull the plug out there.
Bernard Shaw: And it was his trying to maintain the team spirit and say, 'Hang in there. I'm losing millions of dollars. I'm depending on you,' and that was one of the attractions.
Cameraperson: Are they gonna accomplish an interview?
Jim Miklaszewski: Yeah, we're gonna accomplish an interview?
Narrator: With its on-air glitches, it was effortless for the experts to sack the all-news network. But CNN was just getting started.
Jim Miklaszewski: accomplish you want me to pushover anywhere?
Narrator: And only three months after launch, Ted's Chicken Noodle Network had something to crow about -- when Turner's gamble to cover live stories paid off in a minuscule town in Arkansas.
Jim Miklaszewski: This is as proximate as the military will allow us to accept to this Titan II missile silo sight installation just outside of Damascus, Arkansas. A Titan II missile had exploded in its silo and spit its warhead several hundred yards out onto the ground. And the Air obligate officials had told the mayor of Damascus there was no warhead on the premises. Is there a warhead on the sight?
Air obligate official: I cannot substantiate or traverse it.
Jim Miklaszewski: They status the camera in the cherry picker bucket. And as the cherry picker rose up, you could remark now over the trucks. And you could remark this headquarters of activity around what they later found out was the actual warhead. view at that, view at that tank...that's what I asked you...in the crane. Can you remark that picture? They gotta travel live, NOW. This is it, baby.
Robert Goldberg: That's a instant where complete of a sudden intelligence is no longer something that's reported at the terminate of the day. intelligence is something that's happening prerogative now.
Jim Miklaszewski: They're going to secrete it. They are going to secrete it in just a second.
SOT: They gotta travel now.
Reese Schonfeld : By the end, the L.A. Times correspondent said he learned more about the epic sitting in his hotel elbowroom and watching CNN, then he learned from being on the scene.
Ted Turner: accept a picture with him -- that would be...
Narrator: CNN's exploits with the Titan II missile had another keen observer -- Cuba's Communist leader Fidel Castro, who was reviled by the U.S. government. In a pushover that drew criticism, Turner accepted an invitation to travel to Cuba.
Ted Turner: So he was watching CNN. He had heard about it, and Somehow obtained a satellite dish, and the signal, the United States signal spilled into Cuba, so he was able to pick it up. And he thought it was just terrific, well, for the tremendous hospitality you beget shown us and the wonderful time.
Ken Auletta: Ted Turner was a very conservative guy. So, the thought that he would one day consort with Fidel was just totally alien.
Fidel Castro (through interpreter): Though they receive the news, they don't pay for it. I myself don't know how much money they owe the CNN.
Ted Turner: I reflect he was the first Communist I ever met, and, but solemn one, anyway. And he certainly was the first dictator I ever met. I didn't know any dictators.
Narrator: Turner's trip was a revelation to him. When he saw the repercussion that CNN had on Castro, Turner was avid to expand more quickly the coverage and availability of CNN complete around the globe. But he'd need the cooperation of alien governments suspicious of the American press.
Ted Turner: When I came up with the thought of going international, there was tremendous resistance complete over the world by broadcasters and governments to having an American intelligence organization just attain into their country, that they had no control over, and they were really concerned that we'd Somehow attain up with a pro-American agenda, anti-whatever...
Correspondent 1: ...being abducted and status on that aircraft. But he said, 'At the terminate of the day, Haiti is the first ever black independent state'...
Ted Turner : So I said, "I'm going to create a two-hour program every Sunday afternoon that will acquire intelligence stories unedited from any broadcaster in the world that wants to route them in, I will rush them unedited."
Correspondent 1: Around 500 demonstrators marched towards the gates of....
Correspondent 3: ... the most tense situation in Columbia for the final 10 years...
Ted Turner: I had a meeting of my top executives. ...And they said, "Oh, there's no artery you can accomplish that." I said, "Why not?" They said, "We'll accept -- Khadafi will route in a epic about Libya's prerogative and we're wrong. And Castro will exist sending in stories from Cuba that say, "Down with the United States."
Correspondent 1: ...Geneva has lost one hundred and fifty-five men with six hundred...
Ken Auletta: It was controversial because you are not supposititious to rotate 'space' over to the people you're reporting on. Turner basically is turning over a half hour of a time to a government.
Ted Turner: Every year they had a World Report conference where they brought them complete into Atlanta, status them up in the hotel for a week. And they had Russians, they had -- that's how they met the Iraqis. The Iraqis came to the World Report Conference. And when, later they let us stay in Baghdad when everybody else had to leave, because they knew us, they were friends. They were friends with everybody.
Correspondent: OK, now they are seeing more anti-aircraft fire ...
Robert Goldberg: There's this instant when CNN comes of age, and, and it's actually a very precise moment. It's on January 16, 1991, at about 6:35. It's the beginning of the Gulf War, the first Gulf War.
Bernard Shaw: complete hell broke loose. Sirens started wailing, search lights searching the unlit sky....
Atlanta Headquarters: John Holliman, Bernard; John Holliman, Bernard.
Narrator: Back at Atlanta Headquarters, CNN producers turned the cameras on themselves to document their intelligence gathering of the first war covered live on TV.
Bernard Shaw: ...and that's when I yelled through the four-wire, 'Atlanta, attain to us, attain to us.' The skies over Baghdad beget been illuminated. We're seeing smart flashes...
Narrator: The CNN crew, holed up in a hotel in Baghdad, had direct communication with Atlanta, using a special phone line called a four-wire.
Atlanta Headquarters: Yes they can, they can hear you.
Narrator: When the bombs started dropping, and Baghdad's electricity and phones went out, only CNN was reporting live.
Atlanta Headquarters: Baghdad. Baghdad is back. acquire Baghdad prerogative now, Dave.
Peter Arnett: Now the sirens are sounding for the first time. The Iraqis beget informed us.
Atlanta Headquarters: They just reduce the line. accept the French on the air! We're coming back to French. reserve it prefaded.
Anchor, French: Well, they heard Peter Arnett saying the Iraqis beget informed us, and then they didn't hear anymore. This is probably just a technical glitch.
Ken Auletta Tom Johnson, who is chairman of CNN, wanted to pull Bernard Shaw and Peter Arnett and the team out of Baghdad...
Atlanta Headquarters: flaunt me 17! status 17 on the air!
Ken Auletta: ...and Ted Turner interrupted and said, "Tom, status it on my back...they're grownups....if they want to exist there as journalists and cover this war for the American people, by God, I want them to.
Anchor, French: Wolf. Let me interrupt. I'm sorry to interrupt, but we're going back to Baghdad, because they can, and they beget Peter Arnett.
Atlanta Headquarters: Shut up, Blitzer. Let me see, let me remark French. Don't you hear air down there? Don't you hear what's on the air, folks?
Narrator: Turner's gamble to create a network for live intelligence had paid off. The networks that had laughed at him now had to rely on his reports at the start of the Gulf War.
Atlanta Headquarters: I know, but this is where it's happening. complete right?
Robert Goldberg: And the world tunes in to CNN. There are people in the White House watching CNN, there are people in the bunkers of Iraq watching CNN, at the Vatican..
Ken Auletta: Everyone was watching CNN. It was, you know, you reflect the CIA had more information than CNN did? Of course not.
Bernard Shaw: We're going back over the window now...
Ted Turner: [CNN] was a democratization of information. For the first time in the history of the world, every world leader, and everybody in the world, had access to the selfsame information at the selfsame time.
Narrator: The selfsame year that Ted Turner scored his greatest journalistic coup at the start of the Gulf War, he married actress Jane Fonda.
Minister: Will you beget this woman...
Harold Evans: [Ted Turner] becomes a man of peace for the United Nations, a man who stresses international relations, a man who wants to accept rid of nuclear weapons, a man who sees the destruction of the environment from global warming.
Ted Turner: I give thee..
Minister: In the title of the Father...
Ted Turner: In the title of the Father...
Narrator: In the years to come, Ted would sell Turner Broadcasting to Time Warner, and he would cease to play a prominent role in CNN.
Ken Auletta: He'd become convinced that the media were always becoming more and more concentrated with these giant companies, and you needed a tremendous amount of energy and resources. He felt he didn't beget the resources to compete, and he was losing his energy.
Narrator: But in 1991, Ted Turner was on top of the world. Only one thing was missing: If I had one wish, Turner said, it would exist to beget my father attain back...I'd devotion to flaunt him the gross shootin' match...I reflect he'd really devour it.
Russell Simmons: complete right, they can accomplish it.
Employee: Russ, this is the factory. What they --
Russell Simmons: What -- is it too expensive, you say?
Employee: It's just that there are a lot of unknown variables.
Russell Simmons: No, we're making sneakers in [expletive] Hong Kong just devotion everybody else, although I know some of the other competitor, competing companies...
Bill Stephney, Def Jam, 1984-1989: Russell Simmons is a fearless, driven, trade person, thinker.
Russell Simmons: I want to exist in their factory, in China, to show...
Bill Stephney: Russell created this model of the multi-tasking, African American, confidant icon.
Russell Simmons: I want that gross London, Paris, Berlin, complete that stuff tied together.
DMX: Bring it! What?
Alex Ogg: If you're wondering why kids are wearing baseball caps backwards. ... If you're wondering, you're wondering, why so many white kids are impersonating black culture and taking their role models as...rappers, it's complete to accomplish with the artery that Russell Simmons has marketed the artistic phenomenon which is hip hop.
DMX: attain on. Is you cats doin' comin' around devotion this?
Narrator: Russell Simmons sits on top of a multi-million dollar hip hop empire. But he didn't limit his trade to music. He created a cultural movement in hip hop fashion, comedy -- and even poetry, giving voice to a locked out segment of society.
DMX: That's my word.
Narrator: Hip hop became known as "the CNN for black America."
Alan Light, Editor, "Tracks Magazine": In a celebrated rotate of phrase, [rappers] referred to hip hop as 'black America's CNN'...
DMX: Y'all go'n' remark that the hottest [expletive] out there was, is, and will exist me.
Alan Light: Before the Rodney King verdict in Los Angeles and the riots that followed, there was nowhere in the American media that you were hearing about...how nefarious the situation of relations between the police and green black men in this country had gotten. You didn't hear about these things from Dan Rather, you didn't hear about them in the unusual York Times. These were things that were being discussed for years in rap records.
DMX: They don't care...
Russell Simmons: Sometimes they talk about rap and how people don't devotion to hear what the rappers are saying. That's God's soundtrack. You beget to listen to it.
DMX: Bring the noise...
Bill Adler, Def Jam, 1984-1990: Russell Simmons is the Moses of hip hop. He's the person who led the hip hop nation to the promised land of American success and prosperity...
DMX: We're not going anywhere. We're prerogative here.
Bill Adler: In 1964, Russ' family was among the leading edge of Black folks who integrated Hollis, Queens, so they had achieved the American dream in that way...But there was always action on the corner and Russ...always wanted it both ways, I think. If he stayed home, he had two parents, and he was going to accept a sterling education...and if he went to the corner...He could accept into complete the distress that he wanted.
Nelson George, Author, "Hip Hop America": Russell was a low-level drug dealer...
DMX: Oh my god...
Nelson George: [and] there was a guy named Red who...was preying on and robbing the drug dealers of the money they would make. So he came on the block...and a group of guys out there, including Russell, gave chase. ... And someone handed Russell a gun.
DMX: Crossed the line
Nelson George: The artery he recounts it, it's devotion one of those moments of veracity about whether or not, "If I shoot this guy, this is a nefarious thing. But if I don't shoot this guy, if I don't shoot at this guy, I'll view devotion a punk.'
DMX: Click, click boom
Russell Simmons: I shot over his head. I told everybody I tried to extirpate him. ...He escaped. I didn't travel to jail. I didn't extirpate anybody...I'm very, very lucky, and a lot of kids I grew up with weren't so lucky.
Eddie Cheba: status your hands up, let's reach, let's reach, let's reach, until you reach...
Nelson George Charles Gallery was a spot on 125th Street...about a block... from the Apollo Theater...
Eddie Cheba: Somebody say, 'Oh yeah!
Audience: Oh, yeah!
Nelson George: So Russell goes in, he's at City College. ...And he sees Eddie Cheba.
Eddie Cheba: attain on. Clap your hands and stomp your feet and say, 'Oo wee.'
Russell Simmons When I saw Eddie Cheba spitting them flames on the mic...that first undergo blew my mind.
Eddie Cheba: Somebody say, 'Oh yeah."
Narrator: Until Eddie Cheba, Russell Simmons had never seen a rapper, someone who chants rhymed lyrics over music.
Eddie Cheba: They don't need no music, a puny louder...
Audience: They don't need no music
Narrator: Cheba's chanting wasn't as sophisticated as later rap music, but when Simmons heard it, he felt as if he'd witnessed the invention of the wheel.
Eddie Cheba: Uh huh.
Russell Simmons: I knew then that I wanted to share that, promote that.
Nelson George: And that led...Russell...to evolve out of being sort of a scrambling, college student-slash-drug dealer into a promoter, entrepreneur.
Russell Simmons: This is the color, prerogative here. Alright, let's just labor on that a little, develop it a puny further. I devotion it. They haven't had a decent casual shoe in a long time.
Nelson George: Russell Wendell Simmons is a mighty American innovator, because he took something that no one wanted, which was hip hop music, that most people disdained,
Nelson George: and helped pushed it outside the doors to a status that no one could beget imagined.
DMX: Just devotion that.
Harold Evans: Russell Simmons produced the browning of America, in the sense that a culture that was born in the ghetto became universal. Seventy percent of the kids buying rap records are white.
Russell Simmons: ...the unusual and improved Phat Classic...
Nelson George: There will exist people studying Russell's career at Harvard trade School, if they are not already, trying to motif out how this happened.
DMX: We're prerogative here.
Holly Taylor: Russell's gotta go, guys. I'm sorry.
Narrator: It's opening night on Broadway for a daring unusual flaunt that Russell Simmons has produced. The entire flaunt will feature poets reciting their hip hop poetry -- urban, sometimes offensive, in-your-face poetry.
SOT: As the founder of Def Jam Records, he has helped bring rap music to the mainstream.
Narrator: Russell's hustle is in tall gear on this day to promote the unusual show.
Russell Simmons: sterling morning.
SOT: sterling morning.
Russell Simmons: If you travel to a tall school, maybe 80 percent of the kids raise their hands and whine they're writing poetry. It's an obvious step, I believe, for hip hop.
Narrator: Simmons knows that hip hop offends many people. "To those of you who feel that way," Simmons says, "I just query you to exist open to hearing my story," the epic of how a low-level drug dealer became a Broadway producer.
Russell Simmons: Now, we're complete down to the press conference. How are ya doing?
Narrator: Around the time Russell Simmons headed to City College in Harlem, the ghettos of both Harlem and the South Bronx were undergoing a sea change. Coming from the parks of these written-off neighborhoods was a song unlike anything heard before.
Bill Stephney: There were problems in the 70s. They had inflation. In unusual York, they had a terrible fiscal crisis. Cuts to arts programs and school programs basically knocked out. green people say, 'Well, you know, if you can't give me that symbolic status to party, I'm going to travel into the park, and acquire my parents' turntable, and I am literally going to create my own renegade party outside, outdoors, big, gigantic speakers. It's out of that necessity-being-the-mother-of-invention mindset that hip hop develops. And that's where Russell comes from, his entrepreneurship, his incredible ability to create opportunity.
Russell Simmons: I'm gonna exist brief, 'cause I'm not a public speaker or a mighty orator, or nothing.
Narrator: Where others saw a passing fad, Russell Simmons saw in hip hop a cultural revolution. And he wanted to lead the charge, by promoting Run-DMC -- a group that included his own brother -- with their plain-talking song, "It's devotion That."
Run-DMC: Unemployment at a record high, huh! People coming, people going, people born to die
Alan Light: What Russell did beginning with the first Run-DMC record, was say, 'It's just going to exist guys rhyming on the microphone.
Bill Adler: They don't need background singers, they don't need any horns. We're going to acquire music devotion they acquire it in the park.
RUN-DMC: People in the world trying to acquire ends meet. You travel by car...
Narrator: Simmons took a demo of "It's devotion That" to complete the major record labels and found no takers. White executives said 'no,' but so too did black executives.
Russell Simmons: You know, blacks are very conservative. And to badge up these niggers out the street, to depict the images of black America, or to -- you know, that was a difficult one for them. The record executives were, you know -- polished, you know. They were lawyers. They weren't from the street. And if they were, they escaped.
Narrator: Russell Simmons was determined to promote hip hop in a radically different artery from a 60s predecessor, Berry Gordy of Motown Records.
Swingin' Time Host: There he is, the green man. Berry, it's a pleasure having you with us.
Bill Adler: Berry Gordy was the president of Motown Records. He says, 'The only artery I can accept my black artists to Las Vegas is to whiten them up.
Narrator: Gordy made his approach known on TV when asked about the first day the three graceful members of the Supremes walked into his office.
Berry Gordy: Well, first of all, they weren't beautiful.
Bill Adler: He was going to status the Supremes in satin ball gowns, and he was going to give them elocution lessons, straighten their hair. He's going to try and teach them white manners, is really what it comes down to.
Bill Adler: But Russell's thought was, 'I'm not going to acquire any concessions to white manners and to white styles.... I don't beget to cross over. I'm going to pull the mainstream in my direction.'
Run-DMC: ...It's devotion that, and that's the artery it is...huh!
Narration: Frustrated by the closed doors at the major record companies for his artists, Simmons sought out a Long Island punk rocker who had been making rap records in his scruffy dorm room. Rick Rubin and Russell Simmons got together in the descend of '84 and formed their own record company: Def Jam.
SOT: It's Def!
Nelson George: So if it was 'def,' it was great, it was hot, it was exciting.
SOT: It's Jam.
Nelson George: 'Jam' is devotion a record, so 'jam,' so it was a 'Def Jam.' So that just meant that this is a equatorial record.
Alan Light: The unifier was Def Jam. Under that umbrella, there could exist something as you know silly and goofy and accessible as the Beastie Boys.
Beastie Boys: You gotta fight for your prerogative to parrrrty!
Alan Light: Something as political and edgy as Public Enemy.
Public Enemy: We've gotta fight the power.
Alan Light: Putting a record on Def Jam, it meant you were the best of the best that was out there. Every one of them sold. Every one of them was great.
Run-DMC: My Adidas!
Narrator: But Simmons wanted to sell more than music. He wanted to sell a lifestyle. And his casual came when he directed his brother's group to sing about their favorite footwear.
Run-DMC: ...on stage front page every flaunt I go,it's Adidas on my feet tall top or low. My Adidas.
Russell Simmons Anybody coming up in the hood, today or when I was young, knows that you can't wear grimy sneakers. You're coming out of struggle. If you really reflect of yourself a unavoidable way, sneakers had to exist clean.
Run-DMC: Yo, my Adidas!
Bill Adler: Russell arranged to beget executives from Adidas Fly in from Germany to remark Run-DMC achieve at Madison Square Garden. And there's a instant when Run's on stage, and he says, 'All ya'll wearing Adidas, let me remark you Adidas. Wave 'em in the air, right?' And so, "whoo", you know, there's 10,000 pairs of Adidas going in the air, and the guys from, you know Adidas from Germany are going, 'BOING.' You know, what? Here, acquire a sizable check now. They want you on their side.
Run-DMC: My Adidas
Narrator: Run-DMC went on promotional tours for Adidas, and their song headed for the top of the pop charts. Hip hop was clearly more than just music, and Russell Simmons was becoming its marketing maestro.
Alan Light: You read statistics devotion a quarter of complete spending is Somehow impacted by hip hop. People are talking to Russell Simmons about automobile lines now. There's not an terminate to how sizable this stuff grows, partly because hip hop has this sort of consumerist thing built into its DNA.
Bill Adler: Russ started to remark the vogue potential of hip hop very early on. Advertisers were going to attain to him to say, 'Listen, can they -- can they employ Run-DMC in a commercial, and will they wear these clothes for, for us?' And, you know, by that time, Russell is dating models, and he's going to runway shows. And you know, if Tommy Hilfiger is going to design something that's hip hop influenced and acquire a zillion dollars out of it, and Russ is sitting there, watching it happen, he's thinking: "Well, wait a minute. Why should he acquire complete the money? These are my people.' So that kindhearted of thinking led pretty quickly to the formation of Phat Farm.
Narrator: In the early years, it was a struggle to acquire Phat Farm profitable. Simmons refused to sell to sizable city department stores that intended to relegate Phat Farm fashions to their "ethnic" or "urban" sections. He wanted hip hop to exist a youth culture, not just a black one.
Alan Light: Russell gets a call from Madonna's camp, saying, 'We want some hip hop for this tour...We want to accept Run-DMC on this tour. And Russell says, 'Well, you know, you can't afford Run-DMC. Run-DMC is too expensive, you can't beget them. But I got this other act, I got this group, the Beastie Boys.'
Beastie Boys: (yelling)
Nelson George: The Beasties you know, um, well, the Beasties were white, and one of the things Russell had always preached in that time was that hip hop wasn't black music. It was teenage music. And that thought that hip hop was about an attitude toward life, as opposed to about color was very important.
Steven Tyler: 1,2,3,4!
Narrator: Simmons was now hustling hip hop to white America. He even managed to accept hip hop noticed on MTV after "Walk This Way," a breakthrough music video featuring Run-DMC and the already well-known rock group Aerosmith.
Run-DMC: There's a backseat lover that's always under cover and I talk to my daddy, say...
Narrator: At the time, MTV featured few black artists. And its suburban audience was isolated from the unusual urban hip hop movement.
Run-DMC: ... cause the best things of lovin' was her sister and her cousin. And it started with a puny kiss, devotion this!
Narrator: "Walk This Way" brought urban to suburban, white to black and rap to rock and roll.
Alan Light: It would exist hard to spell out any more obviously what they were trying to accomplish with this song and with this video, breaking down the physical wall between rock and hip hop and bringing these artists together.
Run-DMC/Aerosmith: She told me to: Walk this way! Talk this way!
Narrator: 1986 was a heady year for Simmons. The album including "Walk This Way" went triple-platinum, selling mostly to white males. Simmons was the godfather of a gross unusual hip hop empire.
LL collected J: What's going on?
Narrator: But in the early 90s, Simmons entered what he later described as the solitary most difficult phase of his life
Russell Simmons: These kids who are not necessarily -- uh, don't beget the selfsame opportunities.
Narrator: With his attention focused on other aspects of his hip hop empire, the innovative Simmons had stopped innovating, and his equatorial record label went cold. The headquarters of the rap world quickly moved from Def Jam on the East Coast ...
N.W.A.: declare us where you're from; straight out of Compton.
Narrator: ... to a unusual profile of rap from the West Coast: 'gangsta rap.'
Alan Light: Whether he wasn't listening enough to his talent scouts, his A&R people on the street, this gross movement sort of came up and caught him looking the other way. And Def Jam went through a slump in the first half of the 90s that was the most difficult time he's faced
Harold Evans: One of the lessons in innovation is the instant you succeed is the instant you beget to start innovating complete over again. Because at the instant of success, you, kindhearted of, the air goes out of you. You relax, you reserve doing the selfsame old-fashioned thing. That's what happens with Russell Simmons with Def Jam records.
Narrator: Simmons owed his record distributor $17 million, and he was floating payments for his artists on credit cards. If his hip hop empire crumbled, Simmons as an unprecedented role model would never attain to pass.
Bill Stephney: His repercussion is when you travel into a classroom of green black kids, that you'll query them, 'Well what accomplish you want to be? Nine times out of ten, they say, 'Well, I want to rush my own business.' [And] that notion of controlling your destiny as much as you possibly can, did not exist within the community until Russell Simmons.
Russell Simmons: So there's a veracity you learn on the street.
Narrator: During the bleak time for Def Jam, Simmons sought recommendation from the man he calls his mentor:
Russell Simmons: Yeah, hello? Yes. Hey Donald.
Narrator: not a soul other than Donald Trump, the true estate mogul.
Russell Simmons: I hope so, he's a nice guy, I've been on his flaunt devotion four times so I...Donald Trump influenced me in a number of ways, but the thing that impresses me is what he said about himself having been out of trade two or three times, but at least he had his name. Donald Trump's father told him, when he was going to title [a] pile Tiffany's, because he owned the rights to the Tiffany name, he said, "When you change your title to Tiffany, then call it the Tiffany building. But for now, call it Trump."
Nelson George: Trump puts his title sizable as life on every thing he does. Trump this, Trump that. And so Russell knew and learned from Trump that if Trump means buildings, then Def Jam means -- needs to involve -- cool. Def Jam needs to involve urban. Def Jam means attitude.
Narrator: Simmons needed to bolster his Def Jam brand. And around this selfsame time, he noticed the emergence of black comedy nights, at clubs around the city, with in-your-face humor, just devotion hip hop music.
Aries Spears: Picture Mr. Magoo having sex. Wouldn't that exist cool. 'Cause Mr. Magoo would exist like: Oh, Ah, Uh....
Bill Adler: Russ says, 'I'm going to acquire it to television now, and I'm going to birth a gross generation of hip hop comedians.
Nelson George: But instead of calling it, you know, the Black Comedy Jam, he called it the Def Comedy Jam
Announcer: It's the Russell Simmons Def Comedy Jam!
Nelson George By emphasizing the kindhearted of outrageous, edgy, raunchy level of that comedy, he was able to find a kinship between that and the rap music.
George Wilborn: But I beget -- I'm having this reoccurring dream that I wake up and one day there's nothing but rap music left. Can you imagine a world with nothing but rap? Can you imagine outspoken Sinatra singing rap? Pork. Pork, pork that cuchi. Pork, pork that cuchi, pork that cuchi, yeah. That bitch! Ha! That bitch better beget money.
Russell Simmons: I had discussions with Bill Cosby. He was offended by the language. I'm more concerned with cursed ideas than I am curse words. That's my opinion, of course, right. And I'm besides very excited to hear those people who are locked out, with their poetry, or their comedy, you know, talk about their experiences
Eddie Griffin: '91 was a trip. '91 was a year everybody went crazy. Police lost their mother f---ing minds. I know you complete seen the Rodney King beating, came on every night, turned into a TV series.
Russell Simmons: Def Comedy Jam became very popular.
Nelson George: Def Comedy makes Def Jam appear even cooler.
Russell Simmons: And if not for Def Comedy Jam, I don't reflect Def Jam Records would beget survived.
Martin Lawrence: Russell whine a puny something to the people and how you feel.
Russell Simmons: Thank y'all for the obstruct party. I'll remark y'all next week. Peace.
Bill Stephney: Russell presents that wonderful model of diversification -- that you beget a number of eggs in different baskets, so that if one basket indeed does fall, that you know, you're not broken.
Narrator: And that is how Russell Simmons ended up, in November 2002, with an opening night on Broadway. With the Def Jam title fortified, Simmons had geared up to accomplish for poets what he had done for rap artists and comedians, in a flaunt called Def Poetry Jam.
Poet: The streets ain't got nothing for you, shorty. Nothing but a history of misery and I'm spittin' realness hoping your passion me...
Russell Simmons: There's some blacks today, still, you know, they can't believe that those images are images of mainstream black America. Well, they're not. They're images of black America, the piece that's been left behind.
Def Poetry Ensemble: I write America. I write America. I write America. I write America. I write America. .... I write America. I write America. I write America -- a Dear John Letter.
Alan Light: Russell Simmons took the perspective and the sensibility of an entire segment of American society that did not beget access to the mass media. And not only got them in front of the repose of the world, but got them in front of the repose of the world in such a artery that it changed the repose of the world.
Poet: It's devotion this. It's devotion that. It was poetry, but now they call it rap.
Harold Evans: America before hip hop and Russell Simmons was a very different country. It was a country identified basically by exclusion. For complete the tall ideals in the Constitution, for complete the progress made over many years, it was soundless exclusion.
Poets: Hip hop, uh huh, yeah, what?, uh huh....
Danny Glover: And the winner of the American Theater Tony Award for Best Special Theatrical Event goes to Russell Simmons' Def Poetry Jam on Broadway.
Announcer: Accepting the award, producer Russell Simmons.
Bill Adler : Russell Simmons, through his stewardship of hip hop, has made the world a browner place, a louder place, a more colorful place, a funnier place. He's managed to bring the races together. People are less fearful of each other, and that's -- that's a graceful thing.
Russell Simmons: I don't believe this.
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SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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