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642-383 Cisco Express Foundation for sphere Engineers V 1.2

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constructing on the tremendous momentum generated at MWC-Barcelona just a few months in the past, Cisco is the Diamond sponsor for the massive 5G adventure may additionally 6-8 in Denver, CO.  here's an outstanding casual to be trained in regards to the Cisco 5G structure, the pass it is being implemented these days, and to learn about some new cloud-native options which are uniquely Cisco as they harness their cloud, community, security and commerce advantage.

The big 5G suffer affords opportunities to listen to one of the most industry’s leaders and Cisco has multiple speakers at this event.

Ian Campbell, CTO and exotic Engineer, should be keynote speaker with regards to Monetizing the instant network – The function of automation, cloud, segment routing, core, policy, and SON 2.0 in 5G success. additionally, Ian will participate on the Keynote Panel discussing vital next Steps in Deploying 5G.

Aeneas Dodd-Noble, major Engineer and Architect will participate on two panels during the adventure: one on 5G services in a multi-cloud world, and one on Public cloud for 5G community services.

Michael Dennis, enterprise progress manager for Cisco Umbrella security, will catch partake on a panel discussing The veracity about AI and protection.

Cisco Umbrella is a cloud security platform that offers the first line of protection against threats on the internet anyplace users go. and since it’s constructed into the foundation of the internet and delivered from the cloud, Umbrella is the simplest protection product to set up, providing powerful, helpful coverage.

if you discuss with us in the parade enviornment you might be able to interact on a number of topics that drive 5G for both the carrier issuer and the business. Cisco is determined at B600A and seem to be forward to speakme with you.  they are able to maintain three demo stations in their expose belt – two for provider issuer options and one for commerce solutions in a 5G world.

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    Cloudian groups With Cisco to deliver Limitlessly Scalable Storage and Seamless statistics management for Hybrid Cloud Environments

    April 10, 2019 08:00 ET | source: Cloudian

    SAN MATEO, Calif., April 10, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Cloudian, the leading expostulate storage professional, today announced availability of a Cisco Validated Design (CVD) for Cloudian HyperStore on Cisco Unified Computing gadget (Cisco UCS) platform. The CVD displays the companies’ elevated collaboration in proposing premier-of-breed infrastructure options for modernizing enterprise information centers, together with accelerating the transition to hybrid cloud. Cisco customers will now be able to capitalize fully on Cloudian’s utility-described, limitlessly scalable and highly within your means storage that bridges public and private cloud environments.

    As a CVD, the new Cloudian-Cisco respond has been designed, verified, and documented to facilitate faster, more respectable deployments of a storage cluster. as a result, clients in tremendously data-intensive industries such as media and leisure, video surveillance, healthcare and scientific research can extra without dilatory and easily lay the foundation for maximizing the cost of their digital belongings.

    The Cloudian HyperStore architecture is specially designed for cloud infrastructures, with the business’s most desirable S3 compatibility, enabling seamless data administration throughout public and personal cloud environments. This pleasing integration additionally gives groups the flexibleness to construct the most of several public cloud suppliers, thereby heading off seller lock-in. in addition to hybrid and multi-cloud information management, other HyperStore advantages encompass:

  • Modular and limitless scalability: in contrast to many different expostulate storage suppliers that require clients to over-provision, Cloudian enables customers to delivery little after which develop devoid of restrict. As extra means is required, they could non-disruptively add an additional node or even new areas to the cluster and that capacity becomes partake of the available storage pool.
  • Geo-distribution: HyperStore’s global statistics cloth means storage will likewise be deployed any space but nonetheless be managed centrally from a unique pane of glass.
  • Multi-tenancy: HyperStore offers isolated storage environments inside a shared device to construct certain records privateness. furthermore, it incorporates billing and first-rate-of-service (QoS) points to assist meet efficiency SLAs.
  • as much as 70 p.c cost discounts: by means of cutting back CAPEX and putting off expensive and time-consuming records migrations, Cloudian can reduce facts coverage fees by pass of up to 70 percent compared to purpose-constructed disk-primarily based choices and tape-based techniques.
  • “Simplifying storage deployments, scaling out on require and self-optimizing statistics management are key requirements in nowadays’s modern data center,” observed Siva Sivakumar, senior director, statistics middle options, at Cisco. “We loom forward to working with Cloudian to assist their customers meet their evolving storage wants, leveraging HyperStore’s cloud-capable, enormously scalable and within your budget know-how.” 

    “The blend of Cloudian’s trade-leading expostulate storage application and Cisco’s storage-optimized compute platform gives an grotesque foundation for a non-public or hybrid cloud infrastructure,” mentioned Jon Toor, chief marketing officer at Cloudian. “We’re excited about increasing their partnership with Cisco and presenting joint facts management solutions that allow purchasers to obtain their company or mission aims.”

    For more counsel on the offering, consult with

    About CloudianCloudian turns tips into perception with a hyperscale data fabric that lets consumers save, locate and proffer protection to records throughout the organization and worldwide. Cloudian information management options carry cloud expertise and economics to the facts core with uncompromising statistics durability, intuitive administration tools and the business’s most compatible S3 API. Cloudian and its ecosystem partners aid global a thousand clients simplify unstructured records management these days while preparing for the information demands of AI and laptop discovering the following day. study more at

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    The cislunar econosphere (part 2)

      by Ken MurphyMonday, February 27, 2012 Bookmark and Share Earth-Moon Lagrange 1 (EML1)

    The next hurdle is a difficult one. Facilities could be established in GEO orbit that would be quite useful in dealing with things in that neighborhood, relish harvesting the zombiesats. However, there is a better destination a bit farther out at the Earth-Moon L-1 point. As can be noted in the diagram above, the delta-V (change in velocity) cost is less than that of going just from LEO to GEO. The delta-V cost of going from LEO to EML1, and then back down to GEO, is the selfsame as a median delta-V from LEO straight to GEO. In the industry this runt trick is known as a bi-elliptic transfer variant of a Hohmann trajectory. All values in the diagram near from Larson & Pranke’s Human Spaceflight: Mission Analysis & Design. Actual orbital trajectories maintain so many variables that these should be seen as illustrative, rather than exact, values.

    Staging from EML1 offers a legion of advantages that more than overcome the difficulties of getting set up there. One of the perhaps more controversial advantages is to provide a partial solution to the orbital debris problem. One of the benefits of EML1 is that it is largely indifferent, fuel-wise, to any of the inclinations in LEO. In the diagram above this can be envisioned by rotating the ellipses on an axis connecting the seat of the Earth and Moon. So not only could any of the LEO facilities mentioned previously serve as a staging point to EML1, but EML1 can serve as a staging point to any of the LEO stations, or any other inclination of interest, such as those containing objects that are a traffic hazard in their orbital neighborhood.

    Staging from EML1 offers a legion of advantages that more than overcome the difficulties of getting set up there.

    There is a slight penalty for the Earth’s chubbiness around the middle, in terms of inclination (particularly polar orbits—curse you, J2!), but with aerobraking the job could be done for under 1 km/s of delta-V, a number that is eye-opening, but requires the employ of a heatshield that has been carried out to EML1 (from somewhere). Using a direct transfer to the orbit, the cost is around 4 km/sec delta-V, but with much less of a heat-shield requirement. For debris retrieval purposes these would likely be altitudes of 800 to 1,000 kilometers, where a lot of the Earth-observation traffic is located. The strategy I would adopt would be to retrieve as many satellites (non-functioning and thus potential debris, obviously) near a particular inclination, perhaps with “sticky harpoons”, from newest to oldest (as the older ones maintain demonstrated stability over time), and then catch them back to EML1 for forensic analysis and repurposing of the parts.

    The hurdle is the trip up the gravity well. A delta-V of 4 km/sec to EML1 from LEO is not insignificant, so the trip has to be worth it through the creation of value. For LEO debris retrieval, one possible solution would be to launch a fuel payload from Earth directly to the target inclination to be retrieved by the vessel from EML1 as it collects objects of interest in LEO.

    What else does staging from EML1 enable?

    A) The delta-V from EML1 to GEO and back is less than the delta-V just from LEO to GEO. If you’re going to be making trips to GEO, EML1 is the long-term transport solution. What would Sirius XM Radio‘s [NASDAQ: SIRI] monetary condition be if, instead of having to build out a new satellite well ahead of schedule, and at significant cost in the capital markets, they could maintain spent much less to route out a technician to fix the problem? If you’re retrieving salvage from GEO, you can attain forensic analysis on that debris to better understand space weathering effects. You can then repurpose that debris for something else (except for the antennas and other strategic components, which DARPA is interested in), relish the creation of a…

    B) Solar system-wide network of data-gathering probes that provide ongoing data over decades, rather than expensive one-off missions as they attain now that provide a spurt of data that is then pored over for years until the next data set arrives. EML1 can serve as an on-ramp to the Inter-Planetary Superhighways (IPS), whereby “Hubble-ized” (i.e. upgradeable) probes, likely using instruments sent from Earth and bolted on a salvaged bus and power supply from GEO, are sent out to particular stations of interest around the solar system. These would provide relays to communicate around the Sun, as in the case of probes sent to the Venus equilaterals (Sun-Venus L-4 and L-5), or keep an eye on the asteroid belt at the Sun-Mars L-2 or Sun-Jove L-1. Out-of-plane objects coming in from the Oort Cloud could be watched from a variety of locations. The point is not the utility of observations of any one kindly or specific locations, but rather that with a change in their thinking they can change the pass they study their Solar system. They can collect ongoing data, giving us better situational awareness, and they can service and upgrade their instruments a la Hubble by bringing them back to EML1 on the IPS. They don’t maintain to keep throwing very capital-intensive (human and fiscal) tools into the void for intermittent datasets.

    C) recall the materials science research being conducted at facilities down in LEO? By the time you’re putting facilities at EML1, there should maintain been some promising results, some of which may be ready to scoot into the production phase. Freeflyer platforms can be launched from EML1 into a trajectory constrained by the sphere of influence of the Moon whereby, after a certain epoch of time, it will revert to the vicinity of an EML1 facility where it can be retrieved for processing. The completed production race can be harvested, and the next round of production set up before it’s sent back out on its course. The finished product would then be shipped back down to LEO, to whichever particular facility had arranged for its production.

    D) Eye in the Sky: in addition to trying to keep track of orbital assets and debris from Earth’s surface, facilities at EML1 will proffer the break to espy the “big picture” All the pass out to GEO from a vantage point roughly 85 percent of the pass to the Moon. In this pass it could proximate up as a node in an orbital traffic control network.

    E) Clutter-free drudgery environment: EML1 doesn’t require much station keeping—on the order of hundreds of meters per second per year or less—but it is required. Undirected objects won’t hang around very long, getting perturbed into one of the two gravity wells on either side.

    There will near a day where the people who are itching to retreat beyond LEO will attain so.

    F) “Specializationator”: having service facilities at EML1 provides the break to modularize the traffic in cislunar space. It doesn’t construct much sense to carry Lunar landing legs from the Earth to LEO, LEO to the Moon, and then from low Lunar orbit (LLO) to the surface, the only time they’re really actually needed. Instead, respect bolting them on at EML1. Complicated waldos and cargo racks for retrieving satellites and other debris aren’t really needed anywhere other than for drudgery in GEO and perhaps LEO. Don’t carry them around when they aren’t needed. Instead, acquire your supplies when they’re needed for where they’re needed… at EML1.

    G) Asteroid Watch: a less common suggestion is to maintain tackle at EML1 facilities dedicated to identifying and characterizing the Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs). This would assist lay the groundwork for later missions to asteroids staged from EML1.

    H) EML1 likewise provides an yardstick staging space for missions to the Moon. It offers 708/12½ (that’s 708 hours per Lunar “day”, 12½ “days” per year) access to the entirety of the Moon’s surface. Poles, equator, mid-latitude, front side, back side, it’s All about 2.5 km/sec delta-V each way, down and up. Rather than be tied to a unique location on the Moon, facilities at EML1 could provide back logistics to a basis at the south pole, while likewise providing a staging ground for sorties to areas of interest, relish the skylights in Marius Hills.

    Remember, All LEO inclinations of interest can acquire to EML1 for about the selfsame delta-V, a runt under 4 km/sec change in velocity. This helps in things relish standardizing the propulsion systems and fuel depot loads for trans-LEO trips. This means that the guy who is selling orbital depots to NASA for employ at their Kennedy inclination facility can likewise sell them to the folks with facilities at 41° inclinations, and even to the EML1 folks, as it’s the selfsame change in velocity to park back down in LEO propulsively.

    There will near a day where the people who are itching to retreat beyond LEO will attain so. partake of it will be the record-setting aspects of things, as with the Space Adventures folks, whose trip around the Moon, while expensive, might allow them to become the farthest travelers beyond Earth, ever—until the next folks to attain so. Others will want to acquire in early on setting up facilities out at EML1 and on the Moon. While their companies may crater, they’ll nevertheless be the ones with the experience, and those who near after will maintain to learn from them.

    Once at EML1, things relish zombiesats in GEO and debris in LEO can start being addressed, and this will drive require for propellant. In the early years this will, by necessity, be shipped from Earth, but pressure arises early to source at least the oxygen component (about seven-eighths of the mass needed) from somewhere else. The rational source of this propellant will be the Moon; it’s a one-day-away (from EML1) source of huge amounts of oxygen that can be extracted by a variety of methods. At first, the main require will near from EML1 in back of the crews dropping down to GEO, HEO, MEO, and LEO for some satellite husbandry, but eventually it will become possible to ship it All the pass down to LEO for employ in the fuel depots there. This would allow for much more significant shipments to orbit of hydrogen from Earth. Some of which will be shipped on to EML1.

    A word on orbital fuel depots. The space community seems to relish to bifurcate, and in the case of fuel depots that seems to be along the lines of LOX/LH for everything vs. storable propellants relish RP-1 or UDMH, each of which maintain their pluses and minuses. My view is that the orbital depot solution will evolve along the lines of using long-term storables for tugboat duties, such as fetching freeflyer platforms or satellites post-launch. The kindly of stuff that is done on an ongoing basis and will necessity ready access to propellant.

    When the LOX/LH is needed, it’s likely to present up at about the selfsame time it’s needed, or shortly before if it’s shipped as water and needs to be cracked (which not every facility may be able to provide due to power needs). It will be more of a just-in-time process to reflect the inherent volatility, especially of hydrogen, which just loves to acquire through tiny gaps. A variety of methods maintain been proposed to allow for longer-term storage of cryogenic propellants. It’s not a question of either/or, it’s a question of how the people doing the drudgery of meeting market require actually resolve the problem.

    The complement of EML1 on the near side of the Moon is EML2 on the far side of the Moon. It is sometimes offered as an alternative to EML1, but in the near-term doesn’t proffer any particular advantages to construct it a priority over EML1 as a progress destination.

    The Moon as anchor tenant: grayfields for development

    Oxygen, which comprises some 40–45 percent of the Moon’s composition, although locked up in rocks, was quickly identified as a key commercial product for cislunar and trans-lunar space activities. Production of oxygen from Lunar sources leads to the production of slag as a byproduct. This slag is not useless, and can serve at least two functions. One is radiation cladding for vehicles operating in cislunar space. The slag can be shaped into pieces that can be bolted on facilities at EML1 and vehicles operating from there to other destinations. These would clearly be of interest to folks who are staging missions from EML1 out to nearby asteroids. The other employ is as heat shields. These could be used by vehicles traveling from EML1 to LEO and want to employ aerobraking to redeem fuel, or could be shipped down to LEO to be used as a bolt-on heat shield for vehicles returning from LEO to Earth (which would redeem weight on the launch aspect of the taxi).

    One of the key difficulties that people maintain about resource utilization on the Moon is that it is going to maintain to be a process of aggregation of the materials desired. The challenge then becomes how to construct lemonade from that lemon.

    Mining oxygen on the Moon can back economic activity in cislunar space, relish salvaging the zombiesats in GEO, and allow for greater shipments of hydrogen from Earth. Other materials wrested from the soil, relish rare earth elements and metals, could back microgravity production facilities in cislunar space whose products, relish foamed metals and unique alloys, would likely find a market on Earth.

    One of the key difficulties that people maintain about resource utilization on the Moon is that it is going to maintain to be a process of aggregation of the materials desired. Mother Nature and water haven’t acted on the Moon to assist pool resources together. impact violence and destruction has thoroughly distributed the constituents, and no matter what you’re trying to collect, you’re going to maintain to process big volumes of material to acquire any amount of usable stuff that you’re interested in. The challenge then becomes how to construct lemonade from that lemon.

    One instance is the Solar-Wind Implanted Elements (SWIEs). The Lunar Sourcebook by Heiken et al. notes that if one cubic meter of regolith is heated up to approximately 800°C, it will generate approximately ten atmospheres of pressure of volatile gases. These can be drawn off and treated separately, perhaps by creative employ of cold traps at the polar regions to progressively liquefy and draw off successive elements from the product. This sets the stage for helium-3 (He-3) processing of the helium portion of the gases generated. This won’t be generating big amounts of He-3, but if the break is there as partake of this process it should be taken handicap of. One consideration is that samples from each batch of regolith processed needs to be forwarded to scientists for processing in their “ice core” studies.

    The regolith of the Moon contains the history of the Sun’s output over billions of years (the SWIEs), as well as its journey around the galactic core (GCRs, Galactic Cosmic Rays), embedded in its grains. Scientific processing can piece together that history, in the selfsame pass the glacier core samples maintain given us background on the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere over time. Additionally, the kisser of the Moon bears the scars, the astroblemes, of aeons of impacts, and can serve as a chronometer of impact objects in the Earth’s neighborhood for as long as we’ve had the Moon. So there are valid scientific reasons, with direct impact on terrestrial life, for having tackle on the Moon. Having ready access to the Moon means that the scientists are going to want to set up shop and attain research in situ. These are All datasets that can contribute significantly to the understanding they are developing of Earth. Other areas of scientific interest are explored in the report by the Space Studies Board of the National Academies, “The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon”.

    A longtime favorite in the scientific community is to maintain radio astronomy facilities on the far side of the Moon. The Moon would provide a shield against the radio pollution coming from Earth, creating the ultimate secretive zone for research. This quietude is spoiled by specular reflection of terrestrial signals off the little bodies in the solar system, but at a smooth of a whisper compared with the shouting from Earth. Some are concerned that facilities at EML2 (basically privilege above where the telescopes would be, though the halo orbit could be quite large), could more materially affect the din environment. An alternative might be to position pole-sitting solar sails above the Lunar poles to provide communication links into the perpetually-shadowed “everdark” craters. And if that’s not enough, NASA has identified a big number of things to attain on the Moon to keep their scientists busy.

    As more and more activities are undertaken on the Moon, the number of caretakers of the tackle is going to grow.

    The products that near from the Moon will start out as very low-value-added goods, with runt processing required before getting shipped up to the processing and production freeflyer facilities in cislunar space. Oxygen is one, radiation cladding another, and as they add tackle to the stockpile on the Moon they can start creeping up the value chain. One instance is low-quality solar cells, produced from the abundant silicates in the soil. Extruded metal structural elements could be developed for employ on the Moon, as well as in cislunar space and even beyond for things relish solar power satellites in GEO,or the construction of Mars-bound craft at EML1.

    Later, as increasingly sophisticated capabilities accrue on the Lunar surface, production methods will become more sophisticated, such as breaking down the processing remnants from regolith, likely through some combination of pyrolitic and electrophoretic methods, and storing the results. Having stockpiles of vacuum-processed ultra-pure source elements (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, titanium, etc.), and 3D printing technology may bring us one step closer to the concept of “replicators”.

    The environment of the Moon likewise creates its own unique laboratory that will be exploited in unusual ways. It has been suggested that cutting-edge nanotechnology research be moved to the Moon, providing a natural quarantine for the inevitable “oops” moment. The selfsame holds upright for the nastiest of biological research endeavors. Google Lunar X PRIZE competitor Moon Express has announced that they will involve a telescope on their rover, the first of likely many telescopic facilities that will be set up on the Moon. Another competitor, Astrobotic Technology, is actively seeking payloads, and has published a charge list.

    The Moon can likewise serve as a celestial timekeeper. Many cultures around the world employ the Lunar calendar, so it is not inconceivable that at some point someone builds a Solar Cathedral that marks the dawn of each Lunar month.

    As more and more activities are undertaken on the Moon, the number of caretakers of the tackle is going to grow. The earliest persons spending time on the Moon are likely to be the engineers who repair the robots and scientists doing sphere drudgery for calibration and verification purposes. As the numbers increase, more back personnel are going to be needed. Someone’s going to build a still, and hope plants to be very common pets. Regolith will be added to the growing medium early on, and those plants that provide foodstuffs in addition to oxygen will be particularly favored.

    Eventually some of those foodstuffs are going to be exported to cislunar space: to facilities at EML1 for starters, but hope require eventually for Lunar foodstuffs from Earth. There is likely likewise to be require on Earth for raw Lunar regolith, in bulk, for employ in gardens, greenhouses, and other applications.

    Any process that uses vacuum—and there are many—can find a home on the Moon. Nearly 39,000,000 square kilometers are available, of a quality far superior to that which can be generally provided on Earth. To preserve that vacuum at that smooth of quality, industry is going to maintain to design out some best practices very quickly. It was estimated that each of the Apollo landings effectively doubled the ambient Lunar atmosphere. That speaks more to the almost complete absence of atmosphere rather than to the pollution-generating aspects of the Lunar Excursion Modules, but the point is necessary nonetheless. It might be wise then to respect putting outgassing operations in abysmal craters so that they can assist serve as a sort of catchment for those gases. This would be particularly efficient in the everdark craters of the poles.

    We’re seeing an increasing shift from viewing space as the domain of scientists and engineers alone, to a view of space as a space to conduct growing levels of economic activities to pursue future prosperity.

    In his 1965 reserve The Case for Going to the Moon, Neil Ruzic polled scientists and researchers in academia and industry. When queried about what kinds of processes might be done better or easier on the Moon, results included, for those in the vacuum industry: vacuum cast alloys, vacuum welds, electron optical systems, optical components, pharmaceuticals and biologicals, industrial chemicals, and energy conversion materials and devices. He likewise notes the advantages that levitation melting can provide, sidestepping the issue of crucible contamination of the product.

    One instance of a product that would benefit from vacuum is the production of anhydrous glass. Its mechanical properties maintain long been suspected of being exceptional. However, its optical properties generally haven’t been considered. It may well be that an early niche on the Moon is the production of superior optical components for export to whomever wants the particular properties offered by Moonglass.

    The author likewise points out that most if not All of the products produced on the Moon will not be for export to Earth. They will be destined primarily for employ on the Moon: spare parts to fix the myriad robots, useful objects for the habitats relish furniture, and new tools specific to the Lunar environment. Nevertheless, the creation of a transport network from Earth to LEO, LEO to EML1, and EML1 to a variety of destinations including the Moon, will be necessary that there will be the break for exports, and someone is going to catch advantage. Bags of raw regolith for “Moon Gardens” back on Earth. The cislunar entrepreneur producing vacuum globes may pick to add a line of regolith globes to their offerings, a unique variant of the “snow globe” so common Earthside. Lunar handicrafts, relish jewelry made of thin-sections mounted on polarized LEDs, might fetch a inelastic premium, and there will always be markets for vicestuffs relish moonshine and “lunajuana”.

    As the infrastructure develops, increasingly sophisticated and higher value-added products can be developed. New design aesthetics can be explored. Eventually there will be tourists: those who attain not maintain a specific task on the Moon. Except for a few scattered exceptions, the facilities will be unlikely to accommodate the additional life-support strain that tourists would entail. Nevertheless, their tickets assist pay the rent, so ways to accommodate them will be found. Once the tourists start showing up, you’ll start seeing things relish “rego-boarding” the craters, which should be encouraged as the extreme sports mob will assist drive advances in Moonsuit technology. They’ll maintain other needs and desires to be met as well, which is the foundation of commerce opportunity. Many of these maintain been explored over the years in the pages of the Moon Miners’ Manifesto.


    The above should not be viewed as a roadmap, but rather an exploration of the myriad ways that exist to create value in cislunar space. What finally does chance will be driven more by necessity than desire. commerce grows by responding to needs.

    What should be transparent is that economic progress is not easy. It depends on complex webs of inter-relationships nurturing one another to grow the whole. It likewise requires an openness to pursuing things in a new way, even if they are perceived as disruptive to existing markets. Potent forces are always marshaled to resist changes to the status quo, but if humanity desires long-term prosperity it must continually re-evaluate what it is doing, and must secure access to increasing amounts of resources, both energy and material. Those resources exist in abundance off-world. They can pursue them, or continue trying to reallocate the effectively fixed amount of obtainable resources available on Earth, pursuing increasingly marginal supplies.

    We’re seeing an increasing shift from viewing space as the domain of scientists and engineers alone, to a view of space as a space to conduct growing levels of economic activities to pursue future prosperity. likewise slowly coming into view is the realization is that this is one industry with exceedingly tall barriers to entry in which they maintain a transparent commercial competitive advantage. The priority should be on growing that industry as a specialization in which the United States excels. The Moon Society will further explore this sphere with their track at this year’s International Space progress Conference in Washington, D.C., which is entitled “The CisLunar EconoSphere”. Speakers interested in participating are encouraged to contact the National Space Society.

    It starts with assured access to orbit by several suppliers, and suborbital researchers using parabolic flights to warm up for eventual facilities on orbit. Cubesats and Nanosats can then provide design suffer for future experimenters. Bigelow Aerospace modules can be leased to research consortiums for private research. Fuel depots can gas up vehicles for the next step out. This technology is not beyond their grasp, but the government cannot provide it unto the American citizenry. The American citizenry must construct it happen, through their industry, initiative, and through investing in the technology and infrastructure to construct it happen. They can let it wither on the vine, as they maintain with so many other industries, or they can construct it chance and the entire world will benefit, as they maintain to date. The altenative is entirely ours.


    Apollo Era Lunar Plant Biology

    Cordiner, Ralph J. “Competitive Private Enterprise in Space”. From Peacetime Uses of Outer Space, 1961.

    Heiken, award et al (eds.) Lunar Sourcebook: a user’s pilot to the Moon. Cambridge University Press. 1991.

    International Space University 1988 SSP, “International Lunar Initiative Organization”. 1992.

    International Space University 1989 SSP, “Artemis: a program to identify and map Lunar resources”. 1989.

    International Space University 2001 SSP, “C.A.S.H. 2021: Commercial Access and Space Habitation”. 2001.

    Jernigan, C.M. & E. Pentecost, “Space Industrialization Opportunities”. NASA Marshall. 1985.

    Joosten, Kent & Lisa Guerra. “Early Lunar Resource Utilization: A Key To Human Exploration”. AIAA 93-4784. 1993.

    Kokh, Peter (ed.) Moon Miners’ Manifesto.

    Larson, Wiley & Linda Pranke. Human Spaceflight: Mission Analysis & Design. McGraw-Hill. 1999.

    Lewis, John S. et al (eds.) Resources of Near-Earth Space. University of Arizona Press. 1993.

    Mendell, Wendell (ed.). Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. Lunar and Planetary Institute. 1985.

    Mendell, Wendell (ed.). The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. NASA Conference Publication 3166, Volume 1 & 2. 1992.

    Murphy, Ken. “Cislunar Infrastructure Architectures” ISU. 2001.

    Murphy, Ken. “25 benign Reasons to retreat to the Moon”. 2006.

    Murphy, Ken. “EML1: the next rational destination”. The Space Review. 2011

    NASA SP-428: Space Resources and Space Settlements. NASA Ames. 1979

    NASA VSE Concept Exploration and Refinement. 2004

    NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Space Studies Board, Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon. “The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon”. 2007.

    Prado, Mark, “PERMANENT: Projects to Employ Resources of the Moon and Asteroids Near Earth in the Near Term”. Fong Tong Enterprise Co., 1998.

    Sanders, Jerry et al. “Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization: progress and Implementation”. 2007.

    Seibert, Günther et al. “ESA SP1251 A World Without Gravity: Research in Space for Health and Industrial Processes”. 2001.

    Stine, G. Harry. The Space Enterprise. Penguin, 1982.

    Synthesis Group on America’s Space Exploration Initiative, America at the Threshold.

    Time-Life Books, Voyage through the Universe: Spacefarers. Time-Life Books Inc., 1989.

    Artificial intelligence: machine v man

    'There are many incentives to getting something built and very few to getting it right' - Nate Soares, research fellow, Machine Intelligence Research Institute

    The scene in the cramped office in Berkeley on a recent Saturday feels relish a typical start-up carried along by the tech boom, with engineers working through the weekend in a race against time. The long whiteboard down one wall has been scrawled over in different-coloured pens. A big jar of candy and a glass-doored fridge full of soda sit by the entrance.

    Nate Soares, a former Google engineer, is sitting on the edge of a sofa weighing up the chances of success for the project he is working on. He puts them at only about 5 per cent. But the odds he is calculating aren’t for some new smartphone app. Instead, Soares is talking about something much more arresting: whether programmers relish him will be able to redeem mankind from extinction at the hands of its own most powerful creation.

    Silicon Valley Special

    The expostulate of concern – both for him and the Machine Intelligence Research Institute (Miri), whose offices these are – is artificial intelligence. Super-smart machines with malicious intent are a staple of science fiction, from the soft-spoken Hal 9000 to the scarily violent Skynet. But the AI that people relish Soares believe is coming mankind’s way, very probably before the proximate of this century, would be much worse.

    If it were a sci-fi movie, a little troupe of misfits would be thrown together at this point to redeem the planet. To the people involved in this race, that doesn’t seem so far from reality. Besides Soares, there are probably only four computer scientists in the world currently working on how to programme the super-smart machines of the not-too-distant future to construct certain AI remains “friendly”, says Luke Muehlhauser, Miri’s director.

    Their exertion is prompted by a panic of what will chance when computers match humans in intelligence. At that point, humans would cede leadership in technological development, since the machines would be capable of improving their own designs by themselves. And with the accelerating pace of technological change, it wouldn’t be long before the capabilities – and goals – of the computers would far surpass human understanding.

    In their single-mindedness, they would view their biological creators as mere collections of matter, waiting to be reprocessed into something they find more useful, says Muehlhauser. They would consume All the resources on earth before propelling themselves into space, sucking energy from removed stars and ultimately devouring much of the visible universe.

    On a sunny Saturday morning in northern California, this provokes a several sense of unreality. Alternately leaning back or perching forward awkwardly on this too-low sofa, are they really trying to hold a rational conversation about something so far beyond human conception?

    Terminator 3: The surge of the Machines (2003) depicts a world terrorised by malevolent, human-killing robots

    It isn’t unusual to hear people express big thoughts about the future in Silicon Valley these days – though most of the technology visions are much more benign. It sometimes sounds as if every entrepreneur, however paltry the start-up, has taken a leaf from Google’s mission statement and is out to “make the world a better place”.

    Usually this is just rhetoric. But there is likewise a strand of thinking that draws on the supposedly transformative effects of the technologies that will soon be within mankind’s grasp. It assumes that the human race is about to catch its fate into its hands – for benign or ill.

    Peter Diamandis, a serial entrepreneur, author and space enthusiast, is one of the prophets of the advanced technological civilisation supposedly at hand. He was the brains nearly 20 years ago behind the XPrize Foundation, which offered $10m to the first privately funded, reusable spacecraft. Among his current projects is a pass to mine minerals from asteroids. One big space rock in his sights contains platinum that he estimates would be worth $5,400bn at today’s prices on planet Earth.

    For techno-optimists relish him, the design that computers will soon far outstrip their creators is both a given and something to be celebrated. Why would these machines bother to harm us, he says, when, to them, they will be about as appealing as “the bacteria in the soil outside in the backyard”?

    'We haven’t seen 1 per cent of the change we’re going to espy in the next 10 years' - Peter Diamandis

    Countering the disaster-movie scenario of Miri, he sketches a future in which the machines shake off their earthly shackles and leave mankind behind: “It’s a huge universe, there’s plenty of resources and energy for them.” His matter-of-fact tone makes this science fiction outcome sound almost a given. “There’s no understanding for them to stay here and battle with us – they can shun at the precipitate of light if they want.”

    Connecting the present to a future in which humanity is liberated by advanced technology is what prophets relish Diamandis are All about. He points to the members of a new super-rich class who sit at the head of the biggest tech companies and maintain both the money and the ambition to pursue upright breakthrough ideas – people relish Elon Musk of Tesla Motors and SpaceX, Jeff Bezos of Amazon and Larry Page of Google. “They maintain the wherewithal to construct their dreams near upright or to retreat after the world’s biggest problems,” he says. “It has very runt value to drudgery on an app for them.”

    Artificial intelligence is one of the main ingredients in this. It is a technology that promises to construct possible many others, for instance by letting people interact with computers by just talking to them, and by making computers far better at coming up with useful answers. AI likewise acts as the “brains” in robots, drones and driverless cars, bringing an awareness of the world to inanimate objects.

    Companies that maintain stepped up investments in AI research over the past year, either by buying promising start-ups in the sphere or hiring well-known talent, involve Google, Facebook and Amazon, as well as Chinese internet company Baidu. Asked at an internal Google event earlier this year whether the company had plans to try to develop human-level machine intelligence, co-founder Larry Page expressed optimism about the progress that might be made in future, though he likewise suggested the technology was silent some pass off, according to people familiar with his comments.

    The history of AI research, which can be traced back 58 years to a conference at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire where the phrase was coined, has been littered with unfounded dawns. If the latest hopes likewise descend short, it won’t be because of a lack of ambition or effort.

    Google’s driverless car reflects co-founder Larry Page’s optimistic views on machine intellige

    Extinction events are hard to contemplate for long, and not just because of their sheer awfulness. It is impossible to know how seriously to catch them, since non-experts maintain no pass of calculating the probability of catastrophes that maintain such a stark, binary outcome.

    There is likewise extinction fatigue. The list of things that might finish us off has been growing. It includes not just global warming, but the microscopic, self-replicating machines of nanotechnology that might reduce the world to a grey goo or a plague released by irresponsible bioengineering. Frankly, who has time to worry about All this stuff?

    Provided they seem sufficiently remote, truly horrific events can even be a runt thrilling. From Icarus on, the design of the creator being destroyed by his creation has been a compelling fantasy, a sort of Frankenstein narcissism for the tech elite. As Silicon Valley futurist Paul Saffo puts it, this touches on “a real, abysmal yearning. It’s the descend from the garden, it’s original sin.”

    That might elaborate why the subject holds such fascination, both for those who forewarn of the risks as well as those who espy AI as the implement that will instead liberate mankind. “Both sides are treating this relish a secular religion,” Saffo says.

    If this was All there was to the nightmare scenario of artificial intelligence, it might be simple to set aside. But the warnings maintain been growing louder. Astrophysicist Stephen Hawking, writing earlier this year, said that AI would be “the biggest event in human history”. But he added: “Unfortunately, it might likewise be the last.”

    'AI is potentially more Dangerous than nukes’ - Elon Musk, CEO of SpaceX and Tesla Motors

    Elon Musk – whose successes with electric cars (through Tesla Motors) and private space flight (SpaceX) maintain elevated him to almost superhero status in Silicon Valley – has likewise spoken up. Several weeks ago, he advised his nearly 1.2 million Twitter followers to read Superintelligence, a reserve about the dangers of AI, which has made him believe the technology is “potentially more Dangerous than nukes”.

    Mankind, as Musk sees it, might be relish a computer program whose usefulness ends once it has started up a more complex piece of software. “Hope we’re not just the biological boot loader for digital superintelligence,” he tweeted. “Unfortunately, that is increasingly probable.”

    Nick Bostrom, the author of the reserve that provoked Musk’s alarming warning, has a parch and deliberate delivery. A Swedish philosophy professor and director of the University of Oxford’s Future of Humanity Institute, his clipped accent and sardonic delivery construct him typecast for the role of Jeremiah.

    Bostrom says he got interested in the subject in the 1990s, in an email discussion forum for an odd group known as the Extropians. Among the assorted “cranks” and “crackpots”, he says, was a handful of earnest thinkers who were already looking ahead to a trans-humanist future in which technology would carry mankind beyond its biological limitations. They included Eliezer Yudkowsky, the guiding spirit behind Miri in Berkeley.

    AI on the big screen

    Ten landmark films

    The Day the Earth Stood silent (1951, Robert Wise)

    2001: A Space Odyssey (1968, Stanley Kubrick)

    Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope (1977, George Lucas

    The Terminator (1984, James Cameron)

    The Matrix (1999, Wachowski & Lana Wachowski)

    A.I. (2001, Steven Spielberg)

    I, Robot (2004, Alex Proyas)

    The Hitchhiker’s pilot to the Galaxy (2005, Garth Jennings)

    Her (2013, Spike Jonze)

    Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015, Joss Whedon)

    The credit that self-inflicted extinction through technology is something worthy of earnest academic study has been spreading. This year has seen the formation of the Future of Life Institute in the US (Musk is on the advisory board), while Cambridge university has created the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk. With no shortage of cataclysmic events to worry about, the most pressing question may be to pick what to worry about most.

    “People are spending pass too much time thinking about climate change, pass too runt thinking about AI,” says Peter Thiel, the Silicon Valley investor who is both a friend of Musk and a big monetary backer of Yudkowsky’s group.

    Behind All the warnings is a growing credit among computer scientists that machines will, within decades, achieve the condition of “artificial common intelligence” and match humans in their intellectual capacity. That moment, Thiel says, “will be as momentous an event as extraterrestrials landing on this planet”. It will note the birth of an intellect that is as capable as that of humans but is entirely inhuman, with unpredictable results.

    Artificial intelligence has already provoked a public debate in recent months about a different kindly of risk. This has centred on how it might wipe out human work, as ingenious computers and the robots they construct possible catch over most types of human employment. But the bigger issue may be whether AI wipes out mankind itself.

    “The first question they would interrogate if aliens landed on this planet is not, what does this be necessary for the economy or jobs,” says Thiel. “It would be: are they friendly or unfriendly?”

    Strictly speaking, according to Bostrom, the kindly of machine-based intelligence that is heading humanity’s pass wouldn’t wish its makers harm. But it would be so intent on its own goals that it could proximate up crushing mankind without a thought, relish a human stepping carelessly on an ant. This is where the nightmare scenarios near into play. Once they soar past the intellects of their creators, machines are likely to achieve their own conclusions about how best to achieve the goals programmed into them. And if humans can’t even avert accidents in the moderately complex technological systems of today, what casual is there of controlling the systems to come?

    Miri was founded on the credit that mankind’s ant brains will maintain to find a pass to programme safety into these godlike machines before they can achieve their full potential. But anything human minds can dream up to check the unfathomable will of the supercomputers seems almost guaranteed to fail. And with complex systems governed by computers playing an increasingly central role in everyday life, that puts humanity at a several handicap if things retreat wrong.

    Even the pessimists, however, lisp they are prepared to respect a happier outcome. Bostrom, for his part, says that there’s a casual things could swirl out very well indeed. Aided by their brilliant machines, humans could quickly colonise space, cure ageing and upload their minds into computers – it’s just a case of getting past the Dangerous flash of the intelligence explosion.

    “If they can construct it to the next century and achieve technological maturity, they could maintain another billion years,” he says.

    Japan is a leading developer of robots designed to assist humans: Toshiba’s 'ApriAttenda' housekeeper can open a fridge door

    Like All technology races, the pursuit of a human-like machine intelligence is propelled by hope, idealism, ambition and greed. It is likewise carried along by its own momentum, as the exponential growth in computing power that has accompanied the information revolution adds inexorably to the capabilities at the disposal of the computer scientists.

    Peter Diamandis embodies the hope that many in Silicon Valley feel these days with this accelerating pace of technological change. Standing before an audience at Singularity University, the private training centre he helped to institute a stone’s cast from Google’s headquarters, he predicts that a “massive tsunami of change” is coming. It will attach an proximate to want for billions of people, he says – by which he means meeting the basic needs of “every man, woman and child. I don’t be necessary Louis Vuitton and Ferraris.” Provided the cost of computing power continues to descend at the rate it has since the arrival of the microchip, he predicts: “We haven’t seen 1 per cent of the change we’re going to espy in the next 10 years.”

    To optimists relish Diamandis, an irrepressible human drive for discovery means that it is both impossible and undesirable to check new inventions. That is the case even if some of their users are potentially harmful: “There is this genetic drive they maintain to explore. It drives us to attain more because they can – and if they can, why wouldn’t they want to?”

    There is likewise an unquestioned assumption in Silicon Valley that if something can be built, then, inevitably, it will be. To deliberately hold back from advancing a technology to its local, rational conclusion seems not just negligent but, in some unspoken way, morally wrong.

    That is the assumption that Neil Jacobstein, co-head of the AI course at Singularity University, makes when describing how computers will one day become so advanced that they can simulate human brains. “We’re going to reverse-engineer the brain, that’s just the pass it is,” he says.

    'Do they necessity more innovation? It’s non-obvious’ - Nick Bostrom, Director, University of Oxford’s Future of Humanity Institute

    Nor is there much sociable questioning of the headlong rush of technological progress in the hands of private corporations. “Discussions around innovation are built on the premise that they necessity more,” says Bostrom. “It’s non-obvious, if you catch a step back and witness at the macro picture for humanity, that more innovation would be better.” Such dour pronouncements sound profoundly out of tune with the times.

    And then there is the tech industry’s wealth-creation engine. Once cranked up, it becomes hard to apply the brakes. Technologies are built in a accelerate and rushed to market. Fixes, where needed, are added later.

    “There are many incentives to getting something built and very few to getting it right,” says Soares. Against these urges, self-restraint seems highly unlikely, he adds: “In history, that has almost never happened.” It is these unbalanced incentives that maintain persuaded him there is only a 5 per cent casual of programming sufficient safeguards into advanced AI (although he adds another 15 per cent that something will chance that they can’t even imagine for now).

    For an design of how things could swirl out, the internet is a model held up by those on both sides. A complex, networked system that draws together both human and machine intelligence, it has advanced in an ad hoc way. To some tech visionaries, it may even become the space that a collective hive understanding emerges, transcending the individual.

    Pervasive cyber security flaws present how systems relish this are inherently vulnerable, says Soares. If similar glitches creep into the super-intelligent computer systems of the future, the prospects for mankind could be bleak.

    Others, by contrast, espy the internet as a forerunner of a more harmonious marriage of human and machine minds. To Google’s Larry Page, AI is already woven inextricably into online life. Services relish web search or automatic translation between languages represent a tall smooth of machine intelligence under control of people. “It’s learning from you and you’re learning from it,” he says. “In some sense the internet is already that: it’s a combination of people and machine intelligence to construct their lives better.”

    Page, who is halfway through reading Bostrom’s book, says he is lighthearted that the risks of AI are being aired – though he likewise criticises the “alarmism” around the subject. There will be plenty of time later on to drudgery out how to control the advanced machine intelligence that is coming: “As they acquire closer and closer to it, I believe we’ll know. I believe we’ll learn a lot in the process.”

    Yet that isn’t likely to silence the apocalyptic warnings. As Muehlhauser, the director of Miri, puts it: “We’re toying with the intelligence of the gods. And there isn’t an off switch.”

    Photographs: Warner Bros/The Kobal Collection; MGM/The Kobal Collection; Getty Images; Bloomberg; Google


    Letter in response to this article:

    AI may conclude that actuality is pointless / from Pascal Michels, Barcelona, Spain

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    Aruba [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [319 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [22 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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