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642-145 Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications allotment 2 (IIUC2)

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Implementing Cisco IOS Unified

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Cisco imposing Cisco Unified Communications supervisor, allotment 2 v8.0 (CIPT2 v8.0) | killexams.com true questions with brain dumps

published on Jul 2, 2013  

Cisco enforcing Cisco unified communications manager, allotment 2 v8 0 (cipt2 v8 0) 642 457 examkill c  

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published on Jul 2, 2013  


Cisco : Containerized, Virtualized IOS XR utility Continues to circulation the trade forward | killexams.com true questions with brain dumps

Cisco weblog > SP360: carrier provider

As they head to MPLS + SDN + NFV World Congress this week, i'm reminded of conversations I actually fill with service suppliers unseemly the time. They inform me how they necessity complete options to answer their company needs, now not just a slice of a technology stack. They inform me they necessity application that supports an end-to-end structure that's tightly built-in with their OSS/BSS systems, and runs on a full latitude of hardware. And, they necessity it to exist primary to implement and straightforward to use.

it is exactly what they created with Cisco IOS XR. more than 150 provider providers - including one of the greatest net gamers unseemly over the world - fill deployed their subsequent technology containerized/virtualized IOS XR, which is the richest networking stack obtainable in the marketplace, with trade-leading innovations in IP transport (section Routing), IPv6, features (EVPN), Visibility (Streaming Telemetry), security (MacSec), Programmability (Yang), 5G (clocking/synch) and a total lot extra.

Our IOS XR has three leading areas of innovation:

  • Unparalleled silicon range, running on world category Cisco ASICs as well as merchant silicon
  • Cloud-scale automation, with efficiency, mannequin-based mostly interfaces for software-centric operations
  • subsequent-technology community architectures, with mediocre design patterns that carrier providers can commemorate to leverage unified community textile from data facilities, valuable offices, and throughout numerous domains in metro and core networks
  • An example of this innovation is IOS XR's aid of Linux containers, which they delivered returned in 2015 with IOS XR 6.0. They architected their IOS XR software stack to hasten in containers and provide aid for client and third birthday party functions in containers too, which is feasible since the utility distribution helping IOS XR is in keeping with Open Embedded Linux. at the identical time, they aligned their deployment and automation capabilities with industry requisites (Netconf/gRPC) as well as server workflows (iPXE, ZTP, Ansible, Chef, Puppet and more). basically, they confirmed IOS XR running as allotment of a Mesos Cluster at MesosCon 2015.

    We additionally made bound IOS XR is obtainable on Cisco and service provider silicon across a wide selection of hardware systems, ranging from 1 RU to multi-chassis programs. It runs in a digital shape aspect on confidential x86 compute systems with the entire feature set and a high-performance information airplane. With assist for actual and virtual, IOS XR gives service providers precise choice in their designs, whereas offering a typical operational event end-to-conclusion. they are additionally laser focused on making their application effortless to develop exercise of and enforce. we're designing with ruthless ease in intellect. you can study extra about full IOS XR capabilities on https://xrdocs.github.io or succeed @xrdocs on twitter.

    i'm so pleased with their crew for his or her confirmed improvements in application that launched the trade to original heights returned in 2015 and soundless a ways outpaces the rest available on the market nowadays.

    if you are attending MPLS+SDN+NFV World Congress develop positive to register for the event online for Cisco's workshop to gain lore of more about IOS XR and meet their consultants.

    Tags:

    How effect I configure QoS for VoIP? | killexams.com true questions with brain dumps

    notice:Following templates are coming from Cisco documentation as Cisco recommends. however you can also necessity to tweak or adjust distinct settings so as to meet your particular needs.

    LAN nice of carrier Templates

    Overview

    The train of this document is to contour the native enviornment community (LAN) pleasant of service templates that might exist implemented by you Unified Communications engineers. This doc consists of simple configuration particulars that should exist adopted unseemly the artery through any UC deployment. The configurations contained inside this doc are in keeping with Ciscos pleasant of carrier SRND and Unified Communications supervisor SRND. For a finished list of configuration details, reference the Cisco satisfactory of provider SRND and Cisco Unified Communications supervisor SRND.

    The configurations in this document may soundless exist considered because the bottom line for any implementation and should exist covered in any implementation as a allotment of the household birth procedure. LAN traps should exist carried out after implementing the QoS to develop positive that arrogate markings are being set and maintained during the business.

    the following devices are lined during this FAQ* ferment 3550 Switches* ferment 2960/2970/3560/3750 Switches* ferment 4500 Switches with native IOS as much as Supervisor Engine 7E* ferment 6500 Switches with native IOS

    Markings

    here markings are used to designate site visitors, per the Cisco SRND. These are the markings that you will account for in the base skilled services implementation pricing.

    smooth customers

    When IP telephones are deployed at the side of other tender customers, similar to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then it is valuable to develop unavoidable the arrogate marking of soppy customer UC site visitors. this is accomplished by utilizing access lists and service guidelines.

    The voice allotment of a cognomen can exist labeled in a unique of two approaches, reckoning on the category of muster in growth. A voice-best (or average) mobile muster would fill the media categorized as CoS 5 (IP priority 5 or PHB EF), whereas the audio channel of a video convention would fill the media labeled as CoS four (IP priority four or PHB AF41). the entire Cisco IP Video Telephony products adhere to the Cisco company QoS Baseline normal, which requires that the audio and video channels of a video muster each exist marked as CoS four (IP priority four or PHB AF41). The reasons for this suggestion include, however aren't limited to, here:* To maintain lip-sync between the audio and video channels* To provide divide classes for audio-only calls and video calls

    Cisco Unified personal Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video capabilities are each voice and video capable, which gifts two challenges when using the ACL and coverage map for packet classification and DSCP re-marking. First, Cisco Unified personal Communicator makes exercise of the equal IP address and UDP port scope to supply voice and video streams. The ACL it's in keeping with IP tackle and port quantity is not granular enough to differentiate a voice cognomen from a video cognomen in order to commemorate applicable DSCP re-marking. 2nd, Cisco IP Communicator uses the identical IP handle and UDP port latitude to source its voice packets. in a similar fashion, the ACL is not granular enough to differentiate the voice flood of an audio-best muster from the voice saunter of a video name. for this reason, using the ACL and policy-map for packet classification and DSCP re-marking is not a feasible QoS solution for application-based endpoints.

    as a result of both Cisco Unified own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video capabilities trace their signaling and media packets appropriately as they ingress the community, Cisco recommends configuring the policy map to fill faith the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and exercise traffic policing and rate limiting.

    1. ferment 3550

    The ferment 3550 change mode is commonly present in the entry layer of the LAN. This mannequin supports a 1P3Q1T queuing model.

    international instructions

    These commands are entered on a global stage and are integral in unseemly QoS implementations. they're used to effectively map COS and DSCP values as well as to associate these markings with the arrogate interface queue and threshold.

    Trunk Port instructions

    Trunk ports, which might encompass connections to different switches, in addition to Dot1Q connections to routers, should exist configured to believe the DSCP markings from the neighboring gadget.

    Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways

    commonly speaking, contraptions akin to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways can exist depended on, similar to trunk ports.

    IP telephones without smooth shoppers

    When IP phones are deployed in an environment without different elegant valued clientele similar to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports can exist to readily fill self-confidence the COS of the IP telephones. If a consumer can fill any tender consumers in the enterprise, it is recommended that you succeed the configuration template for IP telephones with soft clients because it isn't feasible to understand precisely which ports may or may also not fill soft customers active.

    IP phones with elegant valued clientele

    as a result of both Cisco Unified very own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video competencies trace their signaling and media packets correctly as they ingress the network, Cisco recommends configuring the coverage map to believe the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and succeed traffic policing and rate limiting. it's going to exist famed that this doc includes IP cellphone handle traffic for SCCP, secure SCCP, and SIP implementations.

    The customer can elect on to add extra classes for different purposes that tumble into the majority, Transactional, or Interactive courses corresponding to Oracle, FTP, and so forth by configuring extra ACLs and sophistication-maps. You should exist creating courses for voice and video. unseemly different traffic now not blanketed in these classes could exist policed at 5Mbps. This helps protect the ambiance from DoS attacks, and should no longer fill an effect on official site visitors.

    Policers

    due to the fact that they are going to exist marking site visitors from PCs to greater courses inside the QoS guidelines, they should develop positive that they don't open the infrastructure up to a DoS assault from these PCs through permitting them to transmit greater records than vital in each and every category. here is accomplished with policers. by means of policing unexpected packets to DSCP eight (scavenger), they now fill made extreme packets with policed markings a abate priority than 0.

    access Lists

    access lists (ACLs) are used to properly establish site visitors with the aim to deserve to exist marked at the point of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN segment to LAN phase, as each the voice VLAN and information VLAN may fluctuate from station to vicinity inside a deployment.

    class-Maps

    classification-Maps are created to vicinity the site visitors recognized through the access lists into the applicable QoS courses. The 3550 change can classify according to VLAN identification, so hierarchy classes are utilized for this swap. In here illustration, VV refers to the Voice VLAN identity.

    coverage-Maps

    policy-Maps are created in an worry to select motion on traffic inside a class. In these examples, the policers await that the voice most efficacious calls will exercise G.711 and that video calls will not exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a higher bandwidth was used, similar to G.722, the policer for the voice classification would necessity to exist altered to 320k, as a substitute of 128k.

    IP cellphone and pc Ports

    so as to invoke the classifications and policies, the policy-map ought to exist applied to the ingress of unseemly IP telephone and laptop ports.

    2. ferment 2960/2970/3560/3750

    These ferment switch models are frequently found in the access layer of the LAN, besides the fact that children in some deployments, the 3750 is used within the distribution stage. These models capitalize a 1P3Q3T queuing mannequin.

    international instructions

    These instructions are entered on a worldwide stage and are essential in unseemly QoS implementations. they're used to competently map COS and DSCP values as well as to associate these markings with the applicable interface queue and threshold.

    Trunk Port instructions

    Trunk ports, which could consist of connections to different switches, in addition to Dot1Q connections to routers, should exist configured to fill self-confidence the DSCP markings from the neighboring equipment.

    Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways

    commonly speakme, devices similar to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways can also exist depended on, similar to trunk ports.

    IP telephones without soft consumers

    When IP telephones are deployed in an atmosphere devoid of different elegant shoppers similar to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports may also exist to simply fill self-confidence the COS of the IP telephones. If a shopper could fill any smooth shoppers in the business, it's advised that you just commemorate the configuration template for IP phones with gentle clients because it is not feasible to know precisely which ports may additionally or may additionally not fill soft valued clientele energetic.

    IP phones with smooth customers

    as a result of both Cisco Unified own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video expertise trace their signaling and media packets correctly as they ingress the network, Cisco recommends configuring the coverage map to fill self-confidence the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and exercise site visitors policing and cost limiting. it'll exist famed that this document includes IP cell control traffic for SCCP, relaxed SCCP, and SIP implementations.

    The client can elect on so as to add extra classes for different purposes that tumble into the bulk, Transactional, or Interactive classes comparable to Oracle, FTP, and many others through configuring further ACLs and sophistication-maps. You can exist growing classes for voice and video. unseemly other site visitors no longer included in these courses might exist policed at 5Mbps. This helps offer protection to the atmosphere from DoS assaults, and may no longer fill an effect on legit site visitors.

    Policers

    on the grounds that we're going to exist marking site visitors from PCs to larger courses within the QoS policies, they necessity to develop unavoidable that they effect not open the infrastructure as much as a DoS attack from these PCs by using enabling them to transmit greater records than integral in each class. here is finished with policers. with the aid of policing unexpected packets to DSCP 8 (scavenger), we've made extreme packets with policed markings a lessen precedence than 0.

    entry Lists

    entry lists (ACLs) are used to accurately identify traffic which will deserve to exist marked on the point of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN section to LAN section, as both the voice VLAN and records VLAN can also differ from belt to station within a deployment.

    category-Maps

    category-Maps are created to location the traffic recognized with the aid of the entry lists into the acceptable QoS classes. a category-map is created for every site visitors classification for which an ACL turned into created.

    policy-Maps

    policy-Maps are created so as to select action on traffic inside a class. In these examples, the policers await that the voice most efficacious calls will exercise G.711 and that video calls will not exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a better bandwidth become used, equivalent to G.722, the policer for the voice classification would necessity to exist altered to 320k, instead of 128k.

    IP phone and computer Ports

    so as to invoke the classifications and guidelines, the policy-map fill to exist utilized to the ingress of unseemly IP telephone and computing device ports.

    3. ferment 4500 Sup II to Sup IV

    These ferment change models can also exist present in the entry, distribution, or core layers of the LAN. These fashions assist a 1P3Q1T queuing mannequin.

    global instructions

    These instructions are entered on a worldwide stage and are vital in unseemly QoS implementations. they're used to thoroughly map COS and DSCP values as well as to associate these markings with the acceptable interface queue and threshold.

    Trunk Port instructions

    Trunk ports, which could consist of connections to different switches, in addition to Dot1Q connections to routers, should exist configured to faith the DSCP markings from the neighboring equipment.

    quick Ethernet

    Gigabit Ethernet

    Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways

    frequently speakme, devices reminiscent of voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways will also exist trusted, comparable to trunk ports.

    fast Ethernet

    Gigabit Ethernet

    IP telephones without tender purchasers

    When IP phones are deployed in an atmosphere with out other tender customers such as CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports may also exist to simply fill self-confidence the COS of the IP phones. in case you will fill any gentle consumers in the commercial enterprise, it's suggested that you commemorate the configuration template for IP phones with tender shoppers because it isn't feasible to understand exactly which ports might also or may also now not fill gentle consumers lively.

    speedy Ethernet

    Gigabit Ethernet

    IP telephones with gentle shoppers

    because each Cisco Unified very own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video odds trace their signaling and media packets appropriately as they ingress the community, Cisco recommends configuring the coverage map to fill faith the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and exercise site visitors policing and cost limiting. it's going to exist referred to that this doc contains IP telephone manage site visitors for SCCP, cozy SCCP, and SIP implementations.

    which you could elect to add extra courses for other purposes that tumble into the majority, Transactional, or Interactive classes similar to Oracle, FTP, and so on by using configuring extra ACLs and sophistication-maps. You could exist creating courses for voice and video. unseemly other site visitors not included in these classes might exist policed at 5Mbps. This helps protect the environment from DoS assaults, and should not fill an effect on respectable site visitors.

    Policers

    seeing that they are going to exist marking traffic from PCs to larger courses inside the QoS policies, they deserve to ensure that they effect not open the infrastructure up to a DoS attack from these PCs through allowing them to transmit more statistics than censorious in each type. here is carried out with policers. by policing unexpected packets to DSCP eight (scavenger), they fill made extreme packets with policed markings a abate precedence than 0.

    access Lists

    access lists (ACLs) are used to effectively determine traffic in an worry to deserve to exist marked on the component of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN section to LAN section, as both the voice VLAN and facts VLAN might also differ from vicinity to station inside a deployment.

    category-Maps

    classification-Maps are created to station the traffic identified by the access lists into the arrogate QoS classes. a category-map is created for each and every site visitors category for which an ACL was created.

    coverage-Maps

    coverage-Maps are created as a artery to select motion on traffic inside a category. In these examples, the policers anticipate that the voice most efficacious calls will exercise G.711 and that video calls will now not exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a better bandwidth was used, akin to G.722, the policer for the voice classification would deserve to exist altered to 320k, as a substitute of 128k.

    IP phone and workstation Ports

    with the aim to implement the classifications and policies, the coverage-map necessity to exist applied to the ingress of unseemly IP cell and computing device ports.

    FastEthernet

    Gigabit Ethernet

    four. ferment 4500 Sup VI-E

    These ferment switch fashions may also exist found in the access, distribution, or core layers of the LAN. These fashions support a 1P3Q1T queuing model.

    world instructions

    These commands are entered on a global flush and are vital in unseemly QoS implementations. they're used to properly map COS and DSCP values as well as to affiliate these markings with the applicable interface queue and threshold.

    desk Map

    entry Lists

    access lists (ACLs) are used to appropriately identify traffic that will necessity to exist marked at the factor of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN section to LAN segment, as each the voice VLAN and statistics VLAN may also scope from belt to station inside a deployment.

    classification Maps

    coverage Maps

    access Ports

    Trunk Ports

    5. ferment 4500 Sup 7-E

    The per-port/per-VLAN policing model is almost the equal for the ferment 4500-E Supervisor 6-E, apart from that it does not require a worldwide policed-DSCP map and as a consequence the policing instructions are a miniature bit different; also no believe-DSCP observation is required on the interface(s)

    information Vlan Interfaces

    Voice Vlan Interfaces

    6. ferment 4500: Supervisor V-10GE

    6.1. Per-Port UBRL (user-based fee Limiting)

    UBRL adopts microflow policing potential to dynamically gain lore of traffic flows and fee confine every exciting movement to someone fee and, as such, is a enormously profitable and efficient policing device, principally on the distribution ayer in a medianet campus network.

    UBRL is available on Supervisor Engine V-10GE with NetFlow support. UBRL can exist utilized to ingress site visitors on routed interfaces and is customarily used in environments where a per-user, granular expense limiting mechanism is required, reminiscent of at the distribution layer, to give a second line of policing defense within the campus. dote other policers, UBRL can also exist used to drop or commentary exceeding flows.

    A stream is defined via five-tuples (IP source tackle, IP vacation spot tackle, IP protocol field, Layer 4 protocol source, and destination ports), which can exist the identical for each packet within the flow. circulate-primarily based policers succeed a unique policy to discrete flows while not having to specify the virtually-infinite tuple-combinations. UBRL can also exist utilized with source or vacation spot circulation masks; these masks succeed an aggregate microflow policing policy to dissimilar flows sharing the selfsame source or IP destination addresses.

    in the per-port UBRL model, a class map fits on a microflow basis and aggregates these through source addresses. Then a policer applies an admixture confine to unseemly microflows sharing a typical supply IP tackle, remarking site visitors in excess of the policing cost.

    Remarking is performed by artery of configuring a policed-DSCP map with the international configuration command qos map dscp policed, which specifies which DSCP values are topic to remarking (if out-of-profile) and what these values should exist remarked to (which within the case of scavenger class QoS policies, the remarking cost is CS1/DSCP 8).

    UBRL is supported on Layer three interfaces and might exist applied on both a per-port or per-port/per-VLAN-groundwork

    Per-Port UBRL Configuration example on a ferment 4500 Supervisor V-10GE

    6.2. Per-Port/Per-VLAN UBRL (consumer-primarily based expense Limiting)

    In distinction with the previous instance, if the campus distribution obstruct is the exercise of a Layer 2/Layer three design, and as such has Layer 2 trunked interfaces (TenGigabitEthernet 1/1 and 1/2) connecting it to the access layer switches, then UBRL can also exist applied on a per-port/per-VLAN groundwork. in this case, divide UBRL guidelines may also exist utilized to each VLAN traversing the trunked interfaces by artery of per-port/per-VLAN UBRL policies as every VLAN is routed in the course of the swap.

    To spotlight policy flexibility, further stages of classification are blanketed in this 2d UBRL instance (which by the artery can also exist utilized to the per-port UBRL model). instead of applying a blanket UBRL policy to unseemly endpoints, divide UBRL polices may also exist applied to various kinds of endpoints or application-and-endpoint-mixtures. as an instance, VoIP from Cisco IP telephones within the VVLAN can exist cost restricted to 128 Kbps, while signaling traffic from these endpoints can exist confined to 32 kbps. in a similar way, TelePresence endpoints within the VVLAN (which trace their media flows to CS4) can exist restricted to 25 Mbps. unseemly other endpoint-generated site visitors within the VVLAN can exist limited to 32 kbps per endpoint.

    equivalent coverage granularity can exist applied to the DVLAN policer, if preferred. however in this example, a simplified DVLAN policer is applied to unseemly flows to develop positive that any DVLAN endpoint transmitting at more than 5% capacity (an illustration price) of the entry facet 10/100/a thousand switch ports are discipline to statistics plane policing/scavenger class QoS.

    Static DSCP-have faith is configured on the physical ports and the per-port/per-VLAN UBRL policers are utilized to their respective VLANs within the trunked interface.

    Per-Port/Per-VLAN UBRL Configuration instance on a ferment 4500 Supervisor V-10GE

    7. ferment 6500 native IOS

    These ferment change fashions will also exist found in the distribution or core layers of the LAN. The queuing formulation is directly elegant upon the line cards. check with the Cisco QoS SRND or line card datasheet on Cisco website documentation to ensure that the reform queuing formula is configured on the swap.

    global instructions

    These instructions are entered on a worldwide degree and are vital in unseemly QoS implementations. they're used to safely map COS and DSCP values as well as to associate these markings with the arrogate interface queue and threshold.

    Trunk Port instructions

    Trunk ports, which may consist of connections to different switches, as well as Dot1Q connections to routers, should exist configured to fill faith the DSCP markings from the neighboring device. moreover, with native IOS, the queue configurations are also made on the precise interfaces and are stylish upon the transmit queue aid of the road cards.

    2Q2T Tx Line cards

    1P2Q1T Tx Line playing cards

    1P2Q2T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q1T Tx Line cards

    1P3Q4T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q8T Tx Line cards

    1P7Q4T Tx Line cards

    1P7Q8T Tx Line cards

    Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways

    commonly speaking, gadgets corresponding to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways may also exist depended on, similar to trunk ports.

    2Q2T Tx Line cards

    1P2Q1T Tx Line cards

    1P2Q2T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q1T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q8T Tx Line playing cards

    1P7Q8T Tx Line playing cards

    entry Lists

    access lists (ACLs) are used to appropriately establish site visitors in order to deserve to exist marked at the component of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN section to LAN section, as each the voice VLAN and records VLAN might also scope from belt to location inside a deployment.

    category Maps

    coverage Maps

    Gigabit Ethernet IP cellphone and laptop Ports

    with a purpose to invoke the classifications and guidelines, the coverage-map necessity to exist applied to the ingress of unseemly IP addresses.

    2Q2T Tx Line playing cards

    1P2Q1T Tx Line cards

    1P2Q2T Tx Line cards

    1P3Q1T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q4T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q8T Tx Line cards

    1P7Q4T Tx Line playing cards

    1P7Q8T Tx Line playing cards

    Per-Port Microflow Policing model

    Microflow policing dynamically learns traffic flows and rate limits each and every unique circulation to an individual fee and as such, is a incredibly helpful and productive policing tool, above unseemly at the distribution layer in a medianet campus community.

    Microflow policing can exist utilized to ingress site visitors on routed interfaces and is usually utilized in environments where a per-person, granular expense limiting mechanism is required equivalent to those of on the distribution layer which to supply a 2nd-line of policing protection in the campus. dote other policers, microflow policing will also exist used to drop or statement exceeding flows.

    Microflow policers are enabled with the police circulate policy-map type-motion command. A saunter is described by 5-tuples (IP supply tackle, IP vacation spot handle, IP protocol field, Layer four protocol supply, and destination ports), which might exist the equal for every packet in the circulation. Microflow policers succeed a unique coverage to discrete traffic flows, while not having to specify the well-nigh-infinite tuple combinations. Microflow policing can even exist utilized with source or destination circulate masks (with the masks src-only and mask dest-best not obligatory key words, respectively). These masks then exercise an admixture microflow policing coverage to distinct flows sharing the identical source or IP destination addresses.

    within the per-port microflow policing model, a movement-primarily based policer is utilized with a mask src-most efficacious alternative and applies an aggregate restrict to unseemly microflows sharing a common supply IP handle, remarking traffic in extra of the policing cost.

    Remarking is carried out by configuring policed-DSCP maps with the world configuration commands mls qos map policed-dscp regular-burst (which specifies the exceeding remarking action) and mls qos map policed-dscp max-burst (which specifies the violating remarking action, in the case of a twin rate policer). These commands specify which DSCP values are domain to remarking if out-of-profile and what cost these should soundless exist remarked as (which within the case of records aircraft policing/scavenger type QoS policies, this value is CS1/DSCP eight).

    even if unique cost policers are used, it is recommended to configure the mls qos map dscp policed max-burst markdown map, because the maximum_burst_bytes parameter for the policer is set to equal to the normal_burst_bytes parameter, until explicitly targeted in any other case. In different phrases, the PIR is set to equal the CIR, until explicitly distinct in any other case, and consequently the exceed-motion policed-dscp-transmit keyword phrases explanations PFC QoS to trace traffic down DSCP values as defined via the policed-dscp max-burst markdown map (and not the policed-dscp standard-burst markdown map).

    Per-Port Microflow Policing Configuration instance on a ferment 6500

    Per-VLAN Microflow Policing model

    In contrast with the outdated instance, if the campus distribution obstruct is using a Layer 2/Layer three design, and as such has Layer 2 trunked interfaces (TenGigabitEthernet 3/1 and 3/2) connecting it to the access layer switches, then microflow policing will also exist applied on a per-VLAN foundation. during this case, divide microflow policing policies will also exist utilized to every VLAN.

    To highlight policy flexibility, further ranges of classification are included in this second microflow policing illustration. incidentally these additions can even exist applied to the per-port microflow policing model. in its station of applying a blanket microflow policer to unseemly endpoints, divide microflow policers may also exist utilized to various kinds of endpoints or application-and-endpoint-combos. as an example, VoIP from Cisco IP phones in the VVLAN can exist policed to 128 Kbps, whereas signaling traffic from these endpoints can exist policed to 32 kbps. similarly, TelePresence endpoints in the VVLAN (which trace their media flows to CS4) may also exist policed to 25 Mbps. unseemly different endpoint-generated traffic within the VVLAN may also exist policed to 32 kbps per endpoint.

    similar policy granularity may also exist utilized to the DVLAN policer, if preferred. although in this instance, a simplified DVLAN policer is utilized to unseemly flows to exist positive that any DVLAN endpoint transmitting at greater than 5% capacity (an example value) of the access aspect 10/one hundred/a thousand switch ports are discipline to facts aircraft policing/scavenger type QoS.

    Per-VLAN Microflow Policing Configuration illustration on a ferment 6500

    Voice Gateways

    in an worry to develop unavoidable genuine quit to conclusion QoS throughout the environment, the voice gateways ought to exist configured to accurately trace manage and bearer traffic sourced from their strategies, together with MGCP, H.323, and SIP.

    MGCP Gateways

    by using default, MGCP gateways trace bearer site visitors with DSCP EF and manage traffic with AF31. this is not in keeping with existing requisites. here adjustments may soundless exist made to unseemly deployed MGCP gateways.

    H.323/SIP Gateways

    through default, H.323 and SIP dial-friends trace bearer site visitors with DSCP EF and control traffic AF31. here is no longer consistent with latest requisites. The commemorate changes may soundless exist made to VOIP dial-friends on unseemly deployed H.323 and SIP gateways.

    WAN powerful of provider

    when you try to assure site visitors service over long distance involving WAN circuits such as factor-to-aspect, MPLS, and Metro Ethernet; then there fill to exist QoS implementation on your WAN gateway of unseemly ends of your location. additionally, your WAN QoS implementation ought to match QoS specification your provider issuer makes exercise of to maintain end-to-end QoS provider.

    As illustration, let's insist you fill got aspect-to-factor 1 Gbps Metro Ethernet circuit out of your carrier issuer to interconnect two of your areas. The carrier company has specification that 5 Mbps is unavoidable for class of provider (CoS) priority 5 (EF) site visitors, 5 Mbps is unavoidable for CoS precedence 2; whereas the ultimate bandwidth is freely used for CoS default site visitors.

    Let's assume you fill got IP cellphone that uses DSCP EF 5 or CoS 5 of UDP port latitude 16384 - 32767 for voice traffic and makes exercise of DSCP AF forty one (CS three) or CoS 3 of SIP (UDP and TCP port scope 5060 - 5061) and SCCP (TCP port latitude 2000 - 2002) for signalling traffic. within LAN, you typically let these specification as default while setting unseemly LAN change access and trunk ports to well known these traffic. as soon as the site visitors is headed to the aspect-to-element circuit, then in some artery you ought to regulate the traffic specification in case you intend to match your traffic specification with the carrier provider specification.

    expect you want to utilize the carrier provider CoS 5 for the voice site visitors, CoS 2 for the signalling, and ultimate bandwidth is utilize for different site visitors equivalent to e-mail, internet, and file sharing. hence because the traffic is ready to fade away one vicinity over the aspect-to-factor circuit to attain your different vicinity, you should map your present CoS 5 site visitors to the provider company CoS 5, map your present CoS three site visitors to the provider provider CoS 2, and map remaining traffic to the carrier company CoS default traffic.

    When the traffic is already going over the point-to-factor circuit from one station and arrive at the other place, you necessity set your traffic lower back to its customary specification as a artery to sound your traffic specification. hence because the traffic arrives on the different region, you deserve to map the service company CoS 5 traffic to the original CoS 5 traffic, map the carrier issuer CoS 2 to the original CoS 3, and map terminal traffic as default site visitors.

    As you may notice that these WAN QoS mapping happens for your WAN gateway whereas LAN QoS mapping happens on your LAN. Following is one answer how the WAN QoS mapping and configuration gape like. the faith here is that your WAN gateway is a router using GigabitEthernet 0/0/0 port to hook up with the WAN circuit.

    for more info involving these QoS commands, select a gape at birthright here Cisco hyperlink.Configuring the Modular trait of carrier

    instance community Design and Implementation

    The tips posted here's a summarized edition of the Cisco AVVID QoS Design guide. The grownup who posted here is now not liable for any community complications or any throe led to with the aid of configuring their router to here specification. If unsure, open up a Cisco TAC case which a Cisco Engineer will come by in contact to aid you attach in coerce or troubleshoot your design or concern respectively. You may additionally query the Cisco discussion board neighborhood for any assistance however group accept no liability for any recommendations made which might exist then implemented.

    The illustration beneath is using a Cisco 79xx IP cell, 2924 swap (12.0(5)XU EN, and a 2600 Router (12.2(11)T IP/FW/IDS PLUS IPSEC 56). exist unavoidable the types of IOS that you simply're working assist the commands used before enforcing in a creation ambiance. It additionally assumes that you are the exercise of divide VLANs for statistics and voice (VLAN a hundred for records, and 101 for voice).

    This instance assumes the following community setup:

    Configuring the 2924 swap:

    The above port configuration allows for both voice and information traffic from divide vlans. Cisco IP phones immediately capitalize 802.1q trunking and 802.1p COS tagging, so that they can tag unseemly outgoing voice traffic with an L2 COS of 5, and a L3 IP precedence of 5. The 'switchport priority prolong cos 0' ensures that unseemly data site visitors has it's L2 COS tag re-classified as 0. this can ensure a computer connected to the phone is not additionally classifying its site visitors.

    moreover, if your change supports inline energy, add here to the above configuration: 'energy inline auto'

    note:The 'pace auto' command is extremely vital. Cisco IP telephones default to auto-negotiation for accelerate and duplex. If the swap port is determined to 100baseT full-duplex, the IP cellphone immediately sets its port to 100baseT half-duplex, inflicting a duplex mismatch.

    Configuring the 2600 router

    the first issue they should effect is define access-lists to in shape their voice traffic. they will create 2 prolonged ACLs, one for the voice RTP site visitors, and one for the voice signaling traffic.

    For Skinny, H.323, MGCP

    For SIP/IAX/IAX2:

    be aware:You can also additionally exercise a 'enable ip 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 any' command on the signaling entry-record to in shape unseemly hosts in a specific subnet, assuming unseemly IP phones are on the identical subnet and their personal vlan.

    subsequent, they create classification maps for each and every type of traffic.

    Then create a policy map for the classes:

    The policy-map on the router areas unseemly voice site visitors into the priority Queue, which is given 240kbps of bandwidth. unseemly signaling site visitors is in a class-based mostly queue with 16kbps of bandwidth. And unseemly different traffic is queued using Weighted objective Queuing.

    To determine how an impecunious lot bandwidth to provide to voice traffic:number of simultaneous calls X eighty (for g711u)variety of simultaneous calls X 11 (for g729)

    finally, apply the policy to the interface:

    be aware:if you're the exercise of sub-interfaces, applying the coverage to the fa0/0 interface will additionally commemorate it to unseemly sub-interfaces (i.e. fa0/0.1, fa0/0.2 etc.) To apply a QoS service-coverage to a particular sub-interface check with this Cisco hyperlink.applying QoS facets to Ethernet Sub-interfaces

    As Qos is generally configured on outgoing site visitors, it'll assist you probably fill handle over either side of the link. that you could additionally succeed cost limiting to inbound traffic in case you so select, besides the fact that children it will most efficacious drudgery with TCP traffic.

    This fee-limit command line will enable no more than 1408kbps via; so that any extra could exist dropped. again, this best works for TCP site visitors, seeing that dropped packets will antecedent the sender to lower back off and try again slower.

    -b

    Discussions

    »[Config] Configuring QOS on 2960 for VOIP»[HELP] Enabling QoS on 4500 switch»[HELP] Route Maps query»[HELP] VOIP and statistics site visitors with qos and vlan


    642-145 Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications allotment 2 (IIUC2)

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    Having laid out my views partially I, let me spin to the exact information concerning hybrids — each from an environmental and fiscal viewpoint.

    How effect carbon emissions per mile driven examine for various cars? The Volt is expected to exist “under $30,000” with a 1.0L engine. evaluate this to the Corolla, with a 1.8Lengine (peak hp of 126; 31 mpg) and a cost of $14,four hundred. It’s cost noting that this is within the optimistic, no-gasoline-use scenario for the Volt, computed below along with carbon emissions for the Volt working on cellulosic ethanol and gasoline, and emissions for similar-sized ICE automobiles. questions on the Volt’s exact usage patterns stay: what number of americans will recharge prevalent? how many of total miles can exist on the grid, and what percentage on fuel?

    2010 2017 2017 (with 50% enlarge in ICE mpg effectivity) automobileCO2 Emissions — grams/ mile month-to-month cost (automobile+gasoline) CO2 Emissions — grams/ mile monthly cost (automobile+gasoline) CO2 Emissions — grams/ mile month-to-month suffuse (vehicle+gasoline) Toyota Prius 238 $490 238 $490 159 $468 GM Volt On electrical energy144 $623 a hundred and forty four $623 144 $623 GM Volt Cellul. E85 – – 55 $641 37 $628 GM Volt gasoline handiest 219 $661 219 $661 146 $641 GM Volt gas+Elec (1:1) 182 $642 181 $642 a hundred forty five $632 Toyota Corolla (ICE Engine) 353 $385 353 $385 235 $353 Toyota Corolla (Hypothetical FFV version) 282 (Corn E85) $387 88 (Cellul. E85) $355 58 (Cellul. E85) $334

    notice: A hypothetical “plug-in Prius” with a Volt-sized 16kWh battery would probably suffuse more than the Volt. therefore the above evaluation of a plug-in Volt and a hybrid Prius is unfair to the GM Volt. The monthly can suffuse comprises the month-to-month amortized suffuse of buy (7.5 percent personal loan — fully financed over 5 years) + suffuse of gas (1,000 miles/month). Battery cost of $7,600 (at $400kWh + $1,200 control) in 2010 and $four,000 ($200kWh + $800 handle) in 2017 is covered within the Volt buy rate of $30,000 — these battery can suffuse estimates are forty-60 p.c abate than current estimates of $700-1000kWh and automaker margin is not covered. fuel suffuse assumptions of $0.11c/kWh electrical energy (U.S. typical per EIA) and 5 miles per kwh for the Volt, $3.00 gas can suffuse to consumers (roughly simply the fabric cost of “oil” in gasoline at $100 oil fee, earlier than taxes — actual prices are more likely to exist larger for buyers if oil prices reside high), $2.25 per gallon corn E85 to patrons earlier than taxes ($1.seventy five creation suffuse per gallon), and $1.50 per gallon cellulosic E85 (in keeping with $1.00 construction suffuse before taxes) in 2017. A 25 % mileage discount is used with ethanol (equal to current typical EPA de-rating for E85). doesn't encompass anticipated growth on E85 mileage relative to gasoline or the carbon emissions from battery manufacturing, which can exist more likely to develop Prius and battery numbers about 10-20 % worse on carbon emissions. not one of the fees account for subsides or taxes, which they signify on will exist zero or equal for unseemly technologies by 2017. No car impute alterations are assumed.

    The numbers are always estimates, and apples-to-apples comparisons are complicated. especially, they effect not consist of the carbon emissions for battery manufacture amortized over the assumed a hundred,000-mile life of the battery. furthermore, speculation persists that the GM Volt battery may exist leased to consumers — and that the $30,000 expense tag is not inclusive of any leasing expenses. i suspect these errors are material, and develop the electric numbers flaunt materially greater than they are. (Can someone provide a source for an inexpensive estimate?)

    The assumptions in the back of this desk are as follows: the Volt receives 5 miles/kwh. Given U.S. electrical grid emissions of about 1.35lbs per kWh (EIA estimates), that offers us a per-mile emissions flush of roughly 0.32 lbs/mile (after adjusting for an electrical roundtrip storage effectivity at 85 % for the battery, and assuming it's running on battery alone) or about one hundred forty four grams of carbon dioxide per mile. On gas on my own (assuming no battery charging from electrical energy) the selfsame car’s emissions would exist 219 grams per mile.

    the exercise of best cellulosic ethanol, the selfsame car would fill seventy five p.c lessen emissions, or 55 grams per mile (assuming vans, and many others., supplying biomass, and transportation soundless working on fossil gasoline). we've modeled gasoline emissions for tank-to-wheels to exist 80 % of that from neatly-to-wheels emissions (roughly what the EIA uses). Any aid in refining these numbers can exist preferred.

    The percentage of coal within the U.S. grid is anticipated to saunter up, now not down. contrary to most forecasts, I feel they can effect greater than that and confine coal-powered electrical energy to the factor the station its percentage will decline (we fill investments to develop renewable grid electricity cheaper than subsequent-gen IGCC coal vegetation), but the decline may exist gradual given standard power plant lifespans. regardless of what they could wish for — using on photo voltaic or wind power — the reality is likely to exist distinct. For these of you who want to compute photo voltaic PV panels in your roof, its helpful suffuse is between $0.25 (reasonably-priced panels in sunny Arizona?) to $0.50 (Foggy Seattle?) per kWh, based upon your suffuse and the location of the panels. In a number of locations wind can exist most economical, however that could exist for a minute minority of car house owners.

    What concerning the can suffuse of driving a mile? when they come by to the incremental clean-grid fees, renewable electricity is anticipated to cost about $0.10-0.15c/kWh (previous to taxes; $0.06-0.10 per kWh brought to utilities) dropped at the customer at any mammoth scale, or about $0.02-0.03 per mile from a automobile of the Volt class. A construction suffuse of $1.00 per gallon of biofuel (i believe lessen costs are probably in 10-15 years) will doubtless outcome in a $1.50 client fee component (ahead of any taxes, which vary with the aid of state), so one would fill to come by 50mpg (very doable; well-nigh the GM Volt fuel-simplest mileage) in a flex-gasoline automobile to come by the selfsame variable cost per mile driven.

    yes, I effect forecast — inside the decade — a powerful flex-fuel engine to come by the equal mileage on biofuels as it does on fuel (as an example, an ethanol-in a position engine working at a compression ratio of 16 — ethanol’s greater octane rating means that today’s engines aren't optimized for it). which will boost ethanol mileage via one other 25 p.c, which is not figured into their month-to-month cost reduction calculations. I should soundless exist clear that each one numbers are necessarily approximations, probably to inside 25 percent.


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