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500-210 SP Optical Technology bailiwick Engineer Representative

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500-210 exam Dumps Source : SP Optical Technology bailiwick Engineer Representative

Test Code : 500-210
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Vendor title : Cisco
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Cisco Cisco SP Optical Technology

100G Lambda MSA community adds recent individuals and Releases up to date requirements for subsequent era Networks | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Ray Nering, Product manager, Transceiver Modules community, Cisco

On Sept 20, 2018, the 100G Lambda MSA community announced that membership to the MSA has improved from the timehonored 22 promoters, to encompass an additional 16 contributors. The MSA has been setting up 100G and 400G optical necessities that leverage 100G on a single wavelength to obligate down cost. As carriers start to recognize the advantage and growing momentum available in the market for 100G per lambda solutions, agencies are becoming a member of the MSA.

also, the MSA announced the unencumber of draft 2.0 of the standards targeting records core and repair issuer purposes for duplex single mode fiber hyperlinks. The MSA specifications slash back the optical component complexity required to transmit 100GE and 400GE.

The three predominant requisites for 100GE deployed in networks these days are the IEEE’s 100GBASE-LR4, CWDM4 MSA and PSM4 MSA. complete three are pretty tangled from an optical factor standpoint to composite 25G alerts to 100G link. nowadays, 100GE site visitors is customarily deployed in networks with QSFP28 modules, which fabricate the most of a 4x 25Gb/s electrical interface with host ports. That interface makes it very convenient to at once obligate 4 wavelengths multiplexed together on to a single fiber.

within the early days of 100G know-how, the IEEE designed the 100GBASE-LR4 specification to aid 10km links, and that they decided on the time to fabricate utilize of LAN-WDM wavelength spacing. That requires controlling the laser wavelength very tightly because they are spaced carefully collectively. here is proven graphically in pattern 1. commonly here's accomplished by pass of controlling the laser temperature and requires costly hermetic packaging.

determine 1: 100G SMF standards

Later the CWDM4 MSA group got here up with a variation to reduce fees. They precise the laser wavelengths to acquire a a distinguished deal wider window or tolerance and spaced them some distance apart. This didn’t require the costly packaging that 100GBASE-LR4 does, however they confined the achieve to 2km.

Then got here the 100G PSM4 MSA community. Their strategy turned into to utilize four pairs of fibers and open up the specification for just one laser wavelength window to subsist very broad. This manner eliminated the complexity of distinctive wavelength lasers, multiplexing and de-multiplexing wavelengths nonetheless it introduced complexity of four pairs of fibers to the module and to the interconnecting cable infrastructure, in its status of only 1 pair for LR4 or CWDM4.

As CMOS expertise has developed to smaller geometries enabling greater pace, higher density and better efficiency, advanced signal processing can now subsist moved inside the pluggable optical modules. The IEEE identified this and got here up with a typical called 100GBASE-DR. This strategy takes the 4x 25G electrical sign from the host and makes utilize of a DSP to translate that to a PAM-4 signal (determine 2) in its status of the usage of NRZ signals as is performed with LR4, CWDM4 or PSM4. That signal can then subsist used on a single wavelength that can accommodate broad tolerances and not require a expensive sequence of optical accessories and packaging.

The IEEE distinctive 100GBASE-DR for 500m links. 500m applications are limited to very brief hyperlinks and contains the insertion requisite of a restricted number of patch panels. The 100G Lambda MSA prolonged the attain to 2km with 100G-FR. This enables the module to subsist used not only for longer hyperlinks, but too for infrastructure that can too include a higher number of patch panels or simply greater loss environments. The MSA additionally extended the attain once more to 10km with 100G-LR, addressing the very functions as 100GBASE-LR4.

determine 2: PAM-4 sign

now not handiest finish these recent 100G requisites reduce the complexity of the optical add-ons interior these modules, reducing the cost of 100GE links, however they additionally permit the bridge between 100G and the migration to 400G. The IEEE leveraged 100GBASE-DR for the 400GBASE-DR4 optical usual. The 400GBASE-DR4 is very nearly 4 parallel 100GBASE-DR in a single module offering 400G connectivity over 500m. This approach additionally allows for 100G breakouts from a 400G port as shown in pattern three. At this factor in time there isn't any pass to accomplish this kind of breakout with another 100G module. With CWMD4 or LR4 there is not any compatible 400G module that can deliver this function. operating in breakout, 400GBASE-DR4 without difficulty offers the trade’s maximum density 100G module, 4 100G modules within the house of a QSFP-DD contour factor.

it's expected that some producers will additionally bear 4x 100G-FR modules that give the skill to extend the achieve of 100G breakouts past 500m achieve boundaries of 100GBASE-DR. The MSA has cautiously chosen the necessities for 100G-FR to subsist a hundred% compatible with 100GBASE-DR for maximum flexibility to discontinuance clients.

determine 3: 400GBAS-DR4 Breakout to 100G-FR

The 100G Lambda MSA community too appeared at the latest IEEE 400G requirements. For duplex transmission, the IEEE got here up with 400GBASE-FR8 for 2km and 400GBASE-LR8. These requisites depend on 8 lanes of 50G PAM-4 optical signals on the LAN-WDM wavelength grid, the identical as 100GBASE-LR4. These requirements may acquire the equal issues as 100GBASE-LR4, tense wavelength windows spaced immediate collectively, requiring tense wavelength ply and constantly using better pervade packaging. The variety of wavelength channels required along with the number of transmitters and receivers and the complexity of the multiplexer and de-multiplexer view expensive. The MSA determined that using the 100G per wavelength as a substitute of 50G (identical strategy as 100G-FR/LR) and using 4 channels on the CWDM wavelength grid with wider window of tolerance supply a lower pervade route for 400G. The MSA developed the 400G-FR4 specification for duplex single mode fiber purposes with up to 2km reach.

determine four: 400G requirements

The 100G Lambda MSA has released three up-to-date drafts of their requisites (2.0) for 100G-FR, 100G-LR and 400G-FR4. There continues to subsist more work to subsist achieved with 400G-LR4. in the meantime, providers are developing modules with the brand recent specifications. i would prognosticate to items released to the market over the next three hundred and sixty five days. equipped or now not birthright here comes 400G!


Cisco salary Breakdown And trade Outlook | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No result found, try recent keyword!Networking leader Cisco methods (NASDAQ:CSCO) is a key player in the know-how field. The trade said a 6 ... which accelerated 127%. SP Video salary increased 30% for the quarter. Cisco strives ...

Cisco and Vodafone expose off cell Transport Networking developments by the utilize of side Routing at mobile World Congress | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

BARCELONA, Spain, Feb. 26, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- cellular World Congress - Cisco, along with Vodafone, is demonstrating recent community chopping suggestions by the utilize of section routing this week.

The manner may aid to lower and manage latency for top-bandwidth applications operating on Vodafone`s community, to enhance the ordinary entertainment journey for customers streaming video, games and augmented, digital or combined fact streams.

in line with the Cisco visual Networking Index Forecast 2016-2021, via 2021 network traffic from instant and cellular devices will account for more than 63 percent of complete IP traffic and the number of devices connected to IP networks could subsist 3 times better than the dimension of the international population in 2021. to fullfil this boom favourite for bandwidth and more devices connected to the community, Vodafone has begun to fabricate utilize of Cisco segment routing technology to simplify its overall transport community operations with the aid of automating core services to more suitable realize and decipher traffic jam issues.

phase Routing is an creative IP routing protocol that allows for the transport network to differentiate the style it offers purposes, putting off legacy protocols and making community operations less demanding. using a application defined network for transport, it can subsist practicable to create a low latency `slice` (a virtual route in the transport community), that will subsist inevitable chosen forms of site visitors - as an example computerized using or vital health purposes - would complete the time select the route with the shortest conclusion-to-end latency.

segment routing additionally improves community resiliency by using `self-curative` to intuitively restoration connectivity in below 50 milliseconds if a controversy happens via rerouting traffic instantly. that allows you to provide enhanced community up-time and permit for faster enhancements.

"Vodafone is smartly advanced in its network transformation experience," stated Yvette Kanouff,  senior vp and typical manager, carrier provider business, Cisco. "segment routing marks yet another illustration of how Vodafone is remodeling its community operations with more application and cloud-powered know-how to deliver imaginative functions quicker and greater efficiently. Demonstrating this know-how in entrance of are living audiences birthright here this week gives us the break to share the wow ingredient of how together, we're altering the visage of networking."

visit the Vodafone booth in corridor 3, #3D30, for the joint demo.

assisting materials

Cisco is leading the disruption in the trade with their know-how innovations in programs, silicon, optics and safety, and their unrivalled competencies in mass-scale networking, automation, optical, cable entry, video, and mobility. along side our portfolio of skilled capabilities, they are able to enable provider providers and media and internet organizations to reduce cost and complexity, assist comfy their networks and grow revenue.

RSS feed for Cisco: http://newsroom.cisco.com/rss-feeds             About Cisco Cisco (CSCO) is the international expertise leader that has been making the internet work in view that 1984. Their people, items, and partners aid society securely connect and entrap tomorrow`s digital probability today. find extra at newsroom.cisco.com and follow us on Twitter at @Cisco.

Cisco and the Cisco emblem are logos or registered trademarks of Cisco and/or its affiliates within the U.S. and other countries. a catalogue of Cisco`s logos can too subsist found at www.cisco.com/go/trademarks. 

PR Contact:Sara CiceroSr. Public relations supervisor stutzes@cisco.com

This announcement is dispensed via Nasdaq company solutions on behalf of Nasdaq corporate solutions purchasers.

The provider of this announcement warrants that they're completely liable for the content material, accuracy and originality of the counsel contained therein.supply: Cisco by the utilize of GlobeNewswireHUG#2171531


500-210 SP Optical Technology bailiwick Engineer Representative

Study steer Prepared by Killexams.com Cisco Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 500-210 Dumps and true Questions

100% true Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with elevated Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



500-210 exam Dumps Source : SP Optical Technology bailiwick Engineer Representative

Test Code : 500-210
Test title : SP Optical Technology bailiwick Engineer Representative
Vendor title : Cisco
free pdf : 50 true Questions

strive out these actual 500-210 brand newmodern dumps.
Hurrah! I actually acquire surpassed my 500-210 this week. And I were given flying color and for complete this I am so thankful to killexams. They acquire arrive up with so gorgeous and well-engineered program. Their simulations are very similar to the ones in true checks. Simulations are the main factor of 500-210 exam and really worth more weight age then different questions. After making ready from their software it became very simple for me to lucid up complete the ones simulations. I used them for complete 500-210 exam and discovered them trustful on every occasion.


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500-210 QAs acquire saved my lifestyles. I didnt feel assured on this region and Im contented a friend has knowledgeableapproximately killexams.com Cisco bundle with me some days earlier than the exam. I requisite id purchase earlier, it might acquire made matters lots much less complicated. I assumed that I surpassed this 500-210 exam very early.


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First of complete I want to jabber Thanks to you people. I acquire cleared 500-210 Exam by subscribing to your study materials. So I wanted to share my success on your website. Thank you once again. Thank you very much for your distinguished support. I acquire cleared my 500-210 with 90%.


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i used to subsist a lot disappointed in the ones days due to the fact I didnt any time to prepare for 500-210 examination prep because of my a few each day routine paintings I ought to spend maximum time at the way, a long distance from my domestic to my paintings region. i used to subsist so much concerned about 500-210 examination, due to the fact time is so near, then in the future my pal informed approximately killexams.com, that turned into the flip to my life, the retort of my complete troubles. I should finish my 500-210 exam prep at the pass easily through the utilize of my computer and killexams.com is so dependable and extremely good.


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The inquiries are valid. basically indistinguishable to the 500-210 exam which I passed in just 30 minutes of the time. If notindistinguishable, a extremely righteous deal of stuff could subsist very an indigent lot alike, so that you can conquer it supplied for you had invested enough making plans energy. i used to subsist a bit cautious; however killexams.com free pdf and examSimulator has became out to subsist a strong hotspot for examination readiness illumination. Profoundly proposed. thank youso much.


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The killexams.com free pdf cloth as well as 500-210 exam Simulator goes nicely for the examination. I used both them and prevailin the 500-210 exam with no one trouble. The cloth helped me to resolve where i was vulnerable, in order that I advanced my spirit and spent sufficient time with the particular topic matter. in this way, it helped me to build together well for the exam. I wish you proper righteous fortune for you all.


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i used to subsist trapped in the tangled subjects handiest 12 earlier days the examination 500-210. Whats greater it becomeextremely useful, as the quick solutions may subsist effortlessly remembered inside 10 days. I scored 91%, endeavoring complete inquiries in due time. To store my planning, i was energetically looking down a few speedy reference. It aided me a top notch deal. by no means thought it can subsist so compelling! At that point, by means of one manner or some other I came to deem killexams.com Dumps.


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SP Optical Technology bailiwick Engineer Representative

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The Effects Applied Perpendicular Fields acquire on Magnetic obligate Microscopy | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Electrical and magnetic properties interact to bear complete data storage and logic computing functions known today. In order to engineer such behavior, it is necessary to understand it in depth, and this in spin is aided by the capability to solemnize the magnetic condition of thin films or patterned nanoelements directly, using elevated resolution imaging.

Asylum Research MFP-3D AFMs acquire an accessory named the Variable bailiwick Module (VFM3) that is very useful in enabling the direct visualization of magnetic configurations at nanoscale, with the utilize of magnetic bailiwick microscopy (MFM), where the sample is subjected to applied magnetic fields either in-plane or out-of-plane.  

With MFM, which is the preferred implement for such research, a silicon tip coated with a magnetic film is employed in tapping mode. Once each line is measured topographically, it is scanned a second time but with the tip lifted above the topographical features already measured by an offset which is set at a constant value. The offset is typically in tens of nanometers, and lifts the tip above the surface features so that the long-range forces which are acting on the tip, can subsist quantified. Since the distance remains the same, the variation in the electrostatic and magnetic forces will reason variation in the cantilever oscillation.

Keeping the sample solidly grounded avoids any electrostatic effects. This means only magnetic forces will subsist at work here. These forces arrive from the pass the tip’s magnetic moment interacts with the magnetic bailiwick due to the sample, as shown in pattern 1. With differing bailiwick orientation, either repulsive or attractive forces can subsist expected. This obligate is analyzed using the side shift of the oscillation of the cantilever, and the sign shows if the net obligate is repulsive or attractive, while the magnitude shows the strength. In quantitative terms, the equation is expressed as:

Where is the tip magnetic moment and is the stray magnetic field.1

This application note describes two instances of the utilize of MFM with Asylum MFP-3D Infinity AFM equipped with VFM3 to assist with the creation of recent materials.

Schematic of the magnetic interactions between the magnetic AFM tip and a sample with magnetic domains.

Figure 1. Schematic of the magnetic interactions between the magnetic AFM tip and a sample with magnetic domains.

Example 1

This deals with a methodical examination of films which expose perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), that is, the perpendicular alignment of magnetic domains respective to the film’s plane. The film described here is a sputtered thin film with cobalt and nickel (Co/Ni). PMA is useful in allowing the utilize of a little bit size in hard drives2, as well as reduced power consumption for the next generation of STT-RAM.3 MFM is employed to examine how magnetic domain structures evolve in thin films for which PMA is a office of the applied magnetic field.

This technology was restricted until now in its application because only custom-built AFMs were capable of applying perpendicular fields to the samples while examining them using MFM. The availability of the VFM3 module for utilize with the MFP-3D Infinity AFM allows the free measurement of these parameters while fields are applied out of plane up to ~±1500 Gauss.

Figure 2 shows one example in which MFM is used to capture images from a sample of Co/Ni thin film which is subjected to an applied perpendicular magnetic bailiwick of about 210 Gauss. The color denotes the side information gathered by MFM, corresponding to the magnetic texture, while the extreme smoothness of the film’s topography is shown by the 3D surface. The contrast seen here is because the magnetic domains acquire separating walls limiting the ferromagnetic domains.

MFM  side data painted on the 3D topography of a sputtered cobalt/nickel multilayer film under a perpendicular magnetic  bailiwick of -210 G, 10 μm scan.

Figure 2. MFM side data painted on the 3D topography of a sputtered cobalt/nickel multilayer film under a perpendicular magnetic bailiwick of -210 G, 10 μm scan.

Previously, such experiments were cumbersome and time-consuming. Not only did the bailiwick require manual readjustment after each set of images was acquired, but the magnet systems built to order to apply magnetic fields out of plane to the sample during MFM used electromagnets. This meant that quite a bit of heat accumulated during their operation, leading to unacceptable drift during the AFM measurements. This required continuous compensation.

In contrast, the utilize of the VFM3 module has made these measurements easier and more rapid, since, first of all, permanent magnets are employed for the applied bailiwick 4 which prevents Joule heating and so stabilizes the device considerably. The second advantage is the competence to directly control the bailiwick energy applied by the VFM3 using the Asylum Research MacroBuilder software. This is a simple implement based on graphical software, which can subsist used to create macros to fabricate repetitive measurements during AFM.

When these were combined, hundreds of MFM images were acquired automatically with a varying applied magnetic field. The script for the MacroBuilder is just one simple loop which contains increments to the magnetic bailiwick as long as the tip does not paw the sample surface, as pattern 3 shows. The tip is then brought into contact with the surface, and during this stage MFM images are acquired for both Amplitude and Phase.

In this study, 190 images were captured in five hours. Between images the bailiwick energy underwent incrementation by 5 G. pattern 4 shows a subset of these images, which are notable in that they relent direct data on the pass the magnetic domains contour as the applied magnetic bailiwick goes from a negative magnetic saturation to a positive one.

When so many images acquire to subsist analyzed, the assignment may appear forbidding. The MacroBuilder can build automated offline image analysis functionality. As seen in pattern 4, each image had its 2D Fourier transform calculated using an automatic post-processing script. These transforms expose that an ordered domain structure came into being before the magnetic bailiwick was zeroed. They too relent many details regarding the evolution of occasional and anisotropic domain structure as well as the formation of its period.

Thresholding and masking are used to binarize the images automatically. This permits the formation of the locality and the perimeter of the magnetic domains to subsist examined against the magnetic field. pattern 5 shows plots of the locality and perimeter of the domains with respect to each of the 190 bailiwick strengths. This reveals a significant variation in the generation of these parameters.

The VFM3 module from Asylum Research will thus aid in studying how magnetic domains contour in thin films when magnetic fields are applied to them. It is simple to utilize and shows enhanced productivity, which means reducing the time spent on data acquisition and increasing the time used to research the physical underpinnings of these magnetic materials.

MacroBuilder scripts are simply created using drag-and-drop modules. Here, a single loop was set to  reiterate 190 times, collecting MFM images after incrementing the  bailiwick  energy by 5 G at each step.

Figure 3. MacroBuilder scripts are simply created using drag-and-drop modules. Here, a single loop was set to reiterate 190 times, collecting MFM images after incrementing the bailiwick energy by 5 G at each step.

Representative MFM images and corresponding two-dimensional FFTs of the Co/Ni film at different perpendicular  bailiwick strengths

Figure 4. Representative MFM images and corresponding two-dimensional FFTs of the Co/Ni film at different perpendicular bailiwick strengths

Built-in masking functions were used to automatically binarize each of the 190 MFM images and then   pattern the corresponding  locality fraction occupied by the domains and their total domain perimeter. The graphs clearly  expose that the domain  locality (top) peaks near -100 G, while the perimeter length (bottom) reaches its maximum near 0 G. This information can  subsist used to better quantify the shape evolution of the domains.

Figure 5. Built-in masking functions were used to automatically binarize each of the 190 MFM images and then pattern the corresponding locality fraction occupied by the domains and their total domain perimeter. The graphs clearly expose that the domain locality (top) peaks near -100 G, while the perimeter length (bottom) reaches its maximum near 0 G. This information can subsist used to better quantify the shape evolution of the domains.

Example 2

In this study magnetic skyrmions were directly evaluated with AFMs. Data storage exact is constantly growing, and this will probably requisite a recent technical perspective. One solution which is anticipated with distinguished excitement is the utilize of nanoscale magnetic skyrmions at nanoscale. These are perhaps the tiniest spin textures found in magnetic thin films in the natural world. 5 They can subsist found within a few nanometers and their motion resembles that of quasiparticles. 6

These particles, called magnetic solitons, are unusually durable when it comes to resisting perturbation because of their magnetic texture topology 7 and this has brought them to the forefront of research into the molecules that acquire the greatest potential to become the most advanced magnetic bits, capable of data carriage and storage. 6

Here, cobalt-based thin films with an asymmetric structure composed of multiple layers were designed. The films comprised cobalt sandwiched between two heavy metals. This was to ensure that additive chiral interaction occurred at the interface, which is captious in inducing such unique magnetic domains. This interfacial interaction is called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and stabilizes the nanoscale magnetic skyrmions, which are chiral domains of a circular form, by tending to tilt spins in proximity to each other in one particular direction, as seen in pattern 6.

Skyrmions are not magnetic bubbles, which depend on dipoles for their stability, and usually acquire diameters measuring a few hundred nanometers. Kerr microscopy, which uses magnetic optical methods, is used to acquire images of these bubbles with ease, while skyrmions can only subsist visualized using imaging tools with higher resolution.

Schematic drawing of a skyrmion in a 2D ferromagnet with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy along the  plumb axis. The magnetization is pointing up along the edges and pointing down in the center

Figure 6. Schematic drawing of a skyrmion in a 2D ferromagnet with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy along the plumb axis. The magnetization is pointing up along the edges and pointing down in the center

One example of such a implement is the magnetization-sensitive scanning x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM), using this means a resolution can subsist achieved within 30 nm, and which magnetic domains within these multiple layers were first imaged. Once the conduct of these nanoscale circular domains in perpendicular applied magnetic fields was known, it was shown that they were actually magnetic skyrmions, and the stabilizing obligate was actually a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction of big amplitude.8

The finding of individual skyrmions in a stable condition with dimensions below 100 nm at ambient temperature in a material suitable for such technology, was instrumental in sparking research into their applications in actual devices which could become a reality very soon. However, STXM can subsist carried out only in a synchrotron facility and thus the time available for such studies is restricted by the availability of such centers.

This is another immense advantage of the Asylum VFM3 module, which could subsist a very useful alternative to the utilize of STXM in these experiments. In fact, most STXM measurements and observations can subsist repeated as a routine and at elevated hurry using various multilayer systems in Asylum laboratories, because of factors such as the sensitivity that the MFP-3D Infinity AFM offers to MFM performance, the out-of-plane magnetic bailiwick application and adjustment practicable with the VFM3, and the availability of automation for this system.

Figure 7 shows this achievement, which has allowed researchers to overcome the obstacles posed by the limited time they bag at synchrotron facilities.

Figure 7. Comparison of STXM (left) and MFM (right) images of out-of-plane magnetization in a Ir/Co/Pt multilayer film under an applied perpendicular  bailiwick of 80 G. Scan size 5 μm. MFM images easily reproduce the  very qualitative domain structure at higher resolution.

Figure 7. Comparison of STXM (left) and MFM (right) images of out-of-plane magnetization in a Ir/Co/Pt multilayer film under an applied perpendicular bailiwick of 80 G. Scan size 5 μm. MFM images easily reproduce the very qualitative domain structure at higher resolution.

A further advance towards using the skyrmions in data storage is to subsist able to understand how they behave at nanoscale. This has been initiated using pads limited using e-beam lithography with the diameters ranging from 400 nm to 1 micron. The early results acquired with these structures is shown in pattern 8, with STXM images being shown alongside, so that they can subsist compared with those obtained by MFM.

It is obvious that as the pad diameter varies, the conduct of the magnetic domain too changes dramatically, when subjected to perpendicular magnetic fields, as researchers had already predicted using micromagnetic simulations. The restriction within a geometrical locality in combination with the perpendicular magnetic bailiwick led to the capability of stabilizing single skyrmions in a suitable structure.

MFM imaging reveals domain  conduct as a  office of pad diameter and applied perpendicular magnetic field. Each MFM image of nine pads (top and middle rows) was acquired in about 20 minutes each, compared to 60-90 minutes each for the STXM images at single pads, effectively increasing data throughput by 30-50X.

Figure 8. MFM imaging reveals domain conduct as a office of pad diameter and applied perpendicular magnetic field.Each MFM image of nine pads (top and middle rows) was acquired in about 20 minutes each, compared to 60-90 minutes each for the STXM images at single pads, effectively increasing data throughput by 30-50X.

Such instances are extremely apt to expose the ease with which the utilize of MFM on the MFP-3D Infinity AFM along with the VFM3 module allows magnetic domains to subsist imaged at nanoscale. This is done under the influence of applied magnetic fields, while achieving a resolution hitherto only found with a synchrotron facility. Research in this locality is bound to advance rapidly because of the removal of the limitations on time available at a synchrotron. In addition, the potential to automate the entire process from acquisition of images to data processing will lead to higher productivity.

References
  • Hubert and R.  Schäfer, Magnetic Domains:  The Analysis of Magnetic Microstructures (Springer, 1998).
  • A.  Moser, K.  Takano, D.  T.  Margulies, M.  Albrecht, Y.  Sonobe, Y.  Ikeda, S.  Sun, and E.  E.  Fullerton, J.  Phys.  D35, R157 (2002).
  • S.  Mangin, D.  Ravelosona, J.  A.  Katine, M.  J.  Carey, B.  D.  Terris, E.  E.  Fullerton, Nat.  Mat.5, 210-215 (2006).
  • R.  Proksch, E.  Runge, P.  K.  Hansma, S.  Foss and B.  Walsh, J.  Appl.  Phys.78, 3303 (1995).
  • S.  Mühlbauer, B.  Binz, F.  Jonietz, C.  Pfleiderer, A.  Rosch, A.  Neubauer, R.  Georgii, and P.  Böni.  Science323, 915-919 (2009).
  • A.  Fert, V.  Cros, and J.  Sampaio.  Nat.  Nanotech. 8, 152-156  (2013).
  • N.  Nagaosa and Y.  Tokura.  Nat.  Nanotech.8, 899-911 (2013).
  • C.  Moreau-Luchaire, et al.  Nat.  Nanotech.  Published  online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2015.313 (2016)
  • This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Asylum Research - An Oxford Instruments Company.

    For more information on this source, gladden visit Asylum Research - An Oxford Instruments Company.


    Weir RFID Technology Reduces Iron Fleet Maintenance Time by 90 Percent, Latest Technology Addresses Remote Location Challenges | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    April 30, 2018 07:00 ET | Source: Weir Oil & Gas

    photo-release

    Weir's SPM® Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and RFID Mobile App

    Weir’s RFID AMP technology allows 900 pieces of iron to subsist tagged and accounted for in less than 60 minutes, complete with certificates– a 90 percent reduction over outdated inventory efforts.

    Weir Oil & Gas

    HOUSTON, April 30, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Weir Oil & Gas, a leading upstream provider of pressure pumping and pressure control gear and services, today introduced its second-generation SPM® Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and RFID Mobile App at OTC 2018. The recent RFID enhancements enable flawless iron fleet maintenance in the field, even in the most remote locations plagued with low Internet or cellular connections.

    Maintaining an iron fleet has traditionally been a time-intensive, labor-intensive and error-prone process that relies on tedious manual data collection and physically storing printed certificates. This inefficient approach results in millions of dollars lost due to the inability to bear required certificates for uninterrupted operation.

    For a 900-piece fleet of iron, it typically takes three employees three replete work days to account for complete of the iron in the field. However, Weir’s RFID AMP technology allows 900 pieces of iron to subsist tagged and accounted for in less than 60 minutes, complete with certificates – a 90 percent reduction over outdated inventory efforts. Relying on Weir’s optical character recognition technology, operators can accurately upload certificates – regardless of the issuing inspection organization – into a single storage location in the cloud, allowing for immediate retrieval to avoid unnecessary downtime. 

    New enhancements to Weir’s RFID AMP technology include the competence to scan certificates offline for uninterrupted work flow, regardless of Internet or cellular signal strength, utilize enhanced asset details to see the status of items operators wish to edit on Weir’s mobile app, and write recent tags for items even when operators are away from a connected network.

    Weir’s proprietary RFID Mobile App, available for iPhone and Android devices, supports and speeds testing and inspection processes by identifying assets by serial number, which allows personnel to fulfill an inventory of parts, instantly recall terminal certificates filed and organize the iron in the database based on its assigned unit. Operators can track every piece of iron anywhere in the world at any moment. The RFID Mobile App too eliminates human oversight involved in manually tracking iron in the field.    

    “Remote locations suffer from indigent and incompatible Wi-Fi and cellular signal strength,” said Paul Coppinger, President of Weir Oil & Gas. “The second generation of their RFID technology enables operators to quickly and accurately maintain an iron fleet without being hindered by indigent signal strength.”    

    Companies required to expose inspection certificates on the jobsite can quickly access them through the RFID Mobile App and email them to any exploration and production company representative. This eliminates the time-consuming assignment of searching stacks of paper for certificates, allowing operators to focus on productivity.

    Weir is committed to furthering technology that offers customers greater visibility into their pressure pumping and pressure control systems. The SPM® RFID enhancements complements Weir’s Pressure Control brilliant Systems, which effectively removes the guesswork from managed pressure drilling and flood back operations.

    Today’s announcement is piece of Weir’s participation in the 2018 Offshore Technology Conference at NRG Park. Throughout the conference, Weir is demonstrating its innovations to better reliability and efficiency for oil and gas operations in Booth 3438.

    About Weir Oil & Gas

    Weir Oil & Gas provides superior products and service solutions to fabricate their customers more efficient and lower total cost of ownership.  

    More customers select their pressure pumping solutions than any other. They provide well service and stimulation pumps, flood control products, replacement expendable parts and supporting engineered repair services. Weir’s Pressure Control solutions include wellheads, API valves and frac trees, managed pressure drilling gear including chokes, separators, and containment equipment. Globally they deliver engineered mechanical and rotating gear repairs and upgrades, oilfield and drilling gear repair and certification, rapid prototyping of spare parts, robust asset management and bailiwick engineering services. discover more at www.global.weir.

    Press Contact:Weir Oil & GasApril Lynch, Pennebakerapril@pennebaker.comPhone: 1+ 713-922-1895

    A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://resource.globenewswire.com/Resource/Download/3019c5b6-66ff-48f6-ab3e-cdb8a1c4e36e


    Roles and Responsibilities of NIST in the evolution of Documentary Standards | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    CMSC

    Published: Thursday, October 4, 2018 - 16:02

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST*) is a nonregulatory federal agency of the Department of Commerce and is the national metrology institute of the United States. NIST’s role in the evolution of intentional consensus standards (VCS) is rooted in many policy decisions and government directives that happened during the 1980s and 1990s. NIST has been a leader in the evolution of many standards, including documentary standards,† ever since its founding in 1901.

    The Dimensional Metrology Group (DMG) at NIST develops, performs, and delivers measurements, and physical and documentary standards that promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness. NIST DMG has been involved in many standards committees that are a piece of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), American Society for Mechanical Engineering (ASME), and more lately, ASTM. Recently, DMG, along with various other organizations, was involved in the evolution of an ASTM documentary yardstick for 3D imaging systems. NIST led the effort and was a major contributor in developing this standard, and this activity led to the publication of the ASTM E3125-17 yardstick in 2017. This standards evolution process was systematic per the rules and regulations of ASTM, which in spin enabled a balanced approach that addressed the concerns of stakeholders while maintaining their involvement and establishing a consensus.

    This paper describes the basis for NIST’s authority to participate and drive the evolution of documentary standards. The paper will then portray the role of DMG in the standards evolution process. This includes some of the technical and procedural challenges faced by the working group that published the ASTM E3125-17 3D imaging standard.

    Standards evolution and adoption by government agencies

    Many government agencies acquire been involved in the evolution of standards to achieve their organizational missions. The Department of Defense (DoD) was known to acquire over 21,000 government unique standards (GUS) in utilize prior to the year 1997.1 In 1994, then Secretary of Defense William J. Perry wrote a policy memorandum, now known as the “Perry Memo.”2,3 This memorandum highlighted the increasing costs of relying on GUS and directs DoD to utilize non-government performance standards for its procurement process.

    The non-government performance standards mentioned in the “Perry Memo” are intentional consensus standards (VCS) that are developed by standards evolution organizations (SDOs) using agreed-upon procedures. The next few subsections will detail the history of SDOs, standards evolution in the United States, and how they shaped the events that transpired before and after the “Perry Memo.”

    *Note: The names of the organizations mentioned in this paper varied throughout their history, but will subsist referred to in thispaper with their current title unless otherwise specified. ASTM International will referred to as ASTM in this paper.

    †Note: According to ISO, a documentary yardstick is defined as a document, established by consensus, and approved by a recognized body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of optimum degree of order in each context.

    2.1 Consolidation of the standards evolution activity in the United StatesPrior to the 1900s, there were many organizations dote the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and ASTM that led the evolution of standards for the greater righteous of society. These professional organizations took up the assignment of addressing various safety and commercial interests of that era. Soon, it became evident that there was a requisite to coordinate the standards evolution activities in the United States. In 1918 five engineering societies and three government agencies came together to establish an organization that is known today as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The purpose of ANSI’s founding was to coordinate standards development, certify national consensus standards, and halt user confusion on acceptability. The five engineering societies that founded ANSI were the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers (AIME), the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the ASME, and the ASTM. These five societies, which were themselves core members of the United Engineering Society (UES), subsequently invited the U.S. Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce to unite them as founders.4 The U.S. Departments of War and Navy eventually became the U.S. DoD; the U.S. Department of Commerce is the parent organization of NIST.

    ANSI was founded as a private nonprofit organization and does not develop any standards, but accredits and assesses the competence of the numerous SDOs.5 ANSI too approves individual documentary standards developed by SDOs and designates them as American National Standards (ANS).6 ANS-designated standards undergo additional scrutiny that involves accreditation of consensus procedures, neutral oversight, approval process, appeals process, and procedural audit. These additional requirements generally align with the policies set forth by OMB A-119. However, it is up to the SDO to deem designating an approved yardstick as an ANS by following ANSI’s procedures. As of 2015, there were more than 240 ANSI-accredited SDOs, over 100,000 VCS published in the United States, and over 11,000 ANS. For example, the ASME Y14.5M-1994 for “Dimensioning and Tolerancing” is designated as an ANS. ANSI too serves as the U.S. national standards carcass representative to ISO and many other regional and international standards activities.7,8,9

    There are hundreds of national and international SDOs around the world. Some examples of SDOs accredited by ANSI are ASTM, ASME, IEEE, and Underwriter Laboratories (UL). In many countries a centralized carcass drives the standards activities, which typically is that country’s government and is considered a top-down approach. In the United States, the private sector drives the standards evolution activities, which is considered a bottom-up approach. Many SDOs utilize VCS evolution processes that ensure due process, such as requiring openness, balance, appeals, and consensus.

    2.2 U.S. government directivesThe U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued the circular OMB A-119, in 1980, titled “Federal participation in the evolution and utilize of intentional standards,” which was then revised in October 1982. This was considered a groundbreaking policy. The revised circular in 1982 directed federal agencies to participate in SDOs and reckon on VCS not just in procurement activities, but too in its regulations. However, the usage of GUS continued, and as of 1996 there were quiet about 34000 GUS used by the federal government.10

    Subsequent to the “Perry Memo” in 1994, the policy on usage of VCS for federal agencies was reviewed. This led to the passing of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA, public law 104-113).11 The NTTAA incorporated many of the policy directives of OMB A-119 into a law. OMB A-119 underwent three more revisions since the first revision in 1982.12 The 1993 revision13 reflected the U.S. trade obligations, the 1998 revision14 was updated to reflect the requirements of the NTTAA, and the 2016 revision reflected the changes in numerous federal policies, trade obligations, and practices.15

    The directive for complete the federal agencies, including NIST, to participate in the evolution and adoption of VCS comes from the NTTAA and OMB A-119. The NTTAA mandates that complete federal agencies adopt VCS wherever possible, except where incompatible with law or impractical, and to avoid the evolution of GUS. An example of these directives is DoD replacing a government standard, MIL-L-13762 for lead alloy coatings, developed in 1983, with a consensus standard, ASTM-A308 in 1997.16 GUS are quiet used by the U.S. federal government for safety, security, and specialized military gear where appropriate. The primary purpose of NTTAA and OMB A-119 was to eradicate the cost of developing GUS and reckon on VCS for such needs wherever possible. As of fiscal year 2016, there are only about 70 GUS reported in lieu of existing VCS used by federal government agencies (excluding DoD and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) since reporting began in 1997.17

    There are many more GUS that are presently in utilize mostly due to the requisite of an equivalent VCS, older GUS that acquire not been replaced by VCS, or GUS developed due to statutory requirements. For example, the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) published by NIST are government standards that are mandated by law, which in its present contour address information security-related issues in the federal government.18 Over the years, many FIPS standards were withdrawn,19 and presently only nine FIPS standards are quiet in use.20 Another example of usage of GUS by a federal agency is the “Fire protection for shipyards” yardstick used by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) instead of available VCS. According to OSHA, it was determined that there was no single VCS that covered complete the topics for its final ruling and warrants the usage of a GUS.17

    Though the adoption of VCS is intentional in nature, VCS can become a law if government agencies adopt them into regulations by a process known as incorporation by reference (IBR). For example, many standards developed by ASTM and UL acquire been adopted by federal, state, and local governments or codified into law.21 Many VCS documents are not free of pervade and the SDOs may hold the copyrights. However, adoption of VCS into regulations through IBR by federal agencies is permitted as long as the yardstick is “reasonably available” to the interested parties. The criteria for a VCS being “reasonably available” is circumstantial in the Office of the Federal Register IBR Handbook.22

    2.3 Role of the Department of Commerce and NISTThe U.S. Department of Commerce promotes job creation, economic growth, sustainable development, and improved living standards of complete Americans by working in partnership with business, universities, and workers.23,24 It accomplishes its mission through direct assistance to businesses and communities; targeted investments in world-class research, science, and technology; and through various programs that foster innovation, entrepreneurship, and competitiveness. NIST is one of the 12 bureaus of DOC, and its mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and better their trait of life.25 NIST has always been at the forefront of evolution of documentary standards, but it is not an SDO.‡26 With the emergence of NTTAA and OMB A-119 directives, NIST was too assigned the role of the coordinating standards and conformity assessment activities and reporting government-wide progress annually to OMB.

    2.4 NIST Dimensional Metrology Group activities in documentary standardsThe Dimensional Metrology Group at NIST has been leading and supporting the evolution of many documentary standards for over 60 years. DMG works with manufacturers, users, and other stakeholders on committees of various SDOs in this process. A considerable amount of DMG's research and evolution efforts supports the evolution of these documentary standards, primarily as piece of ISO, ASME, and ASTM. NIST DMG staff too hold leadership positions in about 20 standards committees that are a piece of various SDOs, dote ASME, ISO, and ASTM. Some of the recent examples of documentary standards led by DMG were the ASME B89 series, ASTM E57, and ISO 10360 succession of standards. Examples of documentary standards from these activities include ASME B89.4.19-200627, the ISO 10360-10:2016 standard28 for laser trackers, and the ASTM E3125-17 standard29 for laser scanners.

    Background of the ASTM E3125-17 3D imaging standard

    The ASTM E3125-17 yardstick describes the performance evaluation methods for a class of 3D imaging systems called terrestrial laser scanners (TLS). An overview of the ASTM E3125-17 yardstick was reported by Rachakonda et. al.30 TLS are used in a variety of applications, including transpose engineering, surveying, large-scale assembly, and historical artifact preservation. TLS were investigated at NIST for utilize in a variety of applications starting in the late 1990s. NIST recognized the potential impact of these instruments in a scope of industrial applications and that standards were needed for these class of instruments. Therefore, NIST organized three workshops between 2003 and 2006 that brought together instrument manufacturers, discontinuance users, and other organizations to determine the needs and interests of complete the stakeholders.31,32 The participants of these workshops agreed that the evolution of documentary standards would capitalize TLS users and would aid promote widespread utilize of the technology.

    The process of selecting ASTM as an SDO for 3D imaging standards was too achieved through a consensus process by participants of the NIST workshop in 2006.32 Several SDOs were initially considered, and the choices were narrowed down to two SDOs. These SDOs were sent questionnaires about their standards evolution process. The responses were then sent to the participants of the workshop, who were asked to vote for an SDO. A lucid majority of the participants selected ASTM as the SDO. After this workshop, the ASTM E57 committee was formally established in 2006 to address issues related to 3D imaging systems, such as TLS and optical scope cameras.33 This committee presently has multiple subcommittees, as illustrated in pattern 1. Each subcommittee may acquire multiple work items, which when successful are published as documentary standards. As of the writing of this paper, there are eight published standards under E57, including five standards under the E57.02 subcommittee on test methods.34

    ‡Note: Only one laboratory of NIST, the Information Technology Laboratory (NIST/ITL), is accredited by ANSI as an SDO and primarily retains this status due to various historical reasons that precede NTTAA.

    After establishing the ASTM E57 committee, a working group started work on evaluating the ranging capability of 3D imaging systems, as this was the fundamental measurement of these systems. In 2015, this working group published the ASTM E2938-15 yardstick for 3D imaging systems to evaluate relative-range.35 The scope of this yardstick was limited to the relative scope because the main source of oversight was from the scope measurement of the instrument.

    In 2013, another working group, WK43218, was convened under ASTM E57 to address the volumetric performance of the TLS. This was because both scope and angular errors contribute to the instrument errors when any point-to-point distance is measured. This effort was led by DMG staff, who had considerable experience on laser trackers due to their efforts toward ASME B89.4.19-2006 standard.27 Laser trackers and TLS are very similar in construction, and both these instruments were studied extensively by Muralikrishnan et.al.36,37

    Figure 1: ASTM organization structure showing published standards under E57.02

    NIST’s role in this standards evolution process was as a facilitator and provider of topic matter expertise on TLS and dimensional metrology instrumentation. In these roles, NIST could not exert any more authority than other stakeholders in influencing the direction of the standard. complete the decisions that were taken during this process had to subsist agreeable to complete the stakeholders, and it was NIST’s responsibility to facilitate consensus. NIST DMG staff worked through both technical and procedural hurdles to achieve this task. As piece of the ASTM subcommittee, DMG staff found it necessary to consult many of the guidelines and procedures set forth by ASTM to ply many of the issues that cropped up during this process. Some of the issues encountered by the WK43218 working group are described next.

    3.1 StakeholdersMany of the stakeholders that constituted WK43218 were a piece of the working group that published ASTM E2938-15. Their objectives remained the same: to standardize the performance evaluation of TLS, but in the entire work volume of the instrument. NIST publicized the activities of this working group at various venues, websites, conferences, and symposia, and invited participants to contribute to this effort. Participants of this working group consisted of national metrology institutes, instrument manufacturers, distributors, discontinuance users, and other topic matter experts.

    3.2 Technical challengesThere were many technical challenges during the evolution of the ASTM E3125-17 standard. NIST DMG was uniquely positioned to address these challenges due to its technical expertise, facilities, and resources. Two of the notable hurdles were the availability of artifacts and algorithms to process TLS data. If not chosen appropriately, both the artifact and the algorithms could introduce an oversight in the performance metrics that would not subsist representative of the instrument.

    Spheres were chosen as pattern targets for this activity for reasons that are circumstantial in two technical papers.38, 39 The challenge was the availability of commercial spheres that were suitable to subsist measured both by the instrument under test and the reference instrument. Early on, it was decided that the test procedures at NIST would subsist using a laser tracker as the reference instrument. Measuring big reference lengths was challenging on stationary CMMs, and laser trackers provided a pass to fulfill in-situ measurements. A variety of artifacts were considered by the ASTM working group; the breakthrough came with the availability of a commercial artifact known as an “integration sphere,” depicted in pattern 2. This sphere had a circularity of < 10 µm, and it was designed to subsist measured by both the TLS and the laser tracker.

    Algorithms to process the TLS data were the second major challenge. As increasing amounts of data were being collected, it was observed that sphere datasets were littered with a lot of phantom or spurious points that did not belong to the sphere. The location of these spurious points varied based on the instrument and its ranging technology and had to subsist excluded. A variety of algorithms were considered for this activity and an algorithm known as the “cone-cylinder algorithm” was developed for this activity. This algorithm resulted in a minimal number of spurious points. The details of these algorithms were reported by Rachakonda et. al.40

    Following are some of the other technical challenges that were encountered by this working group:1. Instrument downtime, due to repair, servicing, or calibration2. Proprietary nature of instrument’s construction and data format3. Lack of resources, facilities, equipment, software, and artifacts to independently examine the technical issues by complete the stakeholders

    Figure 2: Commercial sphere used on the grid

    3.3 Procedural challenges

    One of the major procedural challenge happened at the start of this activity: It was to define the scope of the standard. This is one of the most common challenges encountered by many working groups that develop documentary standards. The ASTM E2938-15 yardstick can subsist used to evaluate any 3D imaging system; however, ASTM E3125-17 limits the yardstick only for 3D imaging systems that acquire a spherical coordinate system such as TLS. This was because the TLS oversight sources were well understood prior to the start of the standards activity.36,37 Based on this work, the scope was limited to using test positions that were sensitive to the instrument oversight sources. The scope was too limited to the utilize of reference lengths instead of consistency checks, and the utilize of targets that acquire optical and mechanical properties suitable for a TLS to scan the target in its test volume.

    A significant procedural challenge that was encountered during this activity was recent stakeholders participating in the midst of evolution of the standard, and stakeholders participating on an intermittent basis. Concerns about the direction of the yardstick and the requisite time commitment are a pair of factors that influence stakeholder participation. A considerable amount of effort was expended to fullfil stakeholders about the direction of the standard.

    One other challenge was negative votes from nonparticipating members of the ASTM E57 subcommittee. For a yardstick to subsist approved, it must subsist voted on by the subcommittee members. ASTM requires responses from about 60 percent of the subcommittee members, and 90 percent of those responses must subsist in favor for the yardstick to subsist approved. complete the negative votes had to subsist addressed per ASTM procedures. The negative votes were discussed at length to determine if they were persuasive, and technical responses were drafted. The recommended changes to the proposed yardstick were then submitted to the subcommittee for approval. Once approved, the yardstick had to subsist re-balloted because some of the changes were substantial and not editorial.

    Following are some of the other procedural challenges that were encountered by this working group:1. requisite of sustained interest from topic matter experts.2. Long lead times for procurement, instrument repairs, and manuscript publication3. Organizational budgetary cycles not matching the standards evolution life cycle

    Summary

    NIST has historically been a leader in supporting the evolution of many documentary standards. As recent market-driven requirements emerge, NIST provides its expertise to both the private industry and the U.S. government in the evolution of VCS. In this context, this paper describes NIST's role, which is defined by its statutory authority and further set out in the NTTAA and OMB A-119. The paper then describes some of the challenges faced during the evolution of one VCS, ASTM E3125, that was developed according ASTM rules and regulations.

    DisclaimerCommercial gear and materials may subsist identified to specify inevitable procedures. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement by NIST, nor does it imply that the materials or gear identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

    AcknowledgementsThe authors would dote to thank complete the participants of ASTM WK43218 whose contributions made the ASTM E3125-17 a robust documentary yardstick for TLSs. The authors would too dote to thank Geraldine Cheok of the NIST Engineering Laboratory; David Alderman, Mary Donaldson, and Warren Merkel of the NIST Standards Coordination Office; and Michael Hogan of NIST ITL for their helpful discussions, document review, and feedback regarding intentional consensus standards.

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