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Test Number : 300-115
Test name : Implementing Cisco IP Switched Networks (SWITCH v2.0)
Vendor name : Cisco
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e-book Extract: enforcing Cisco Unified Communications | 300-115 Dumps and existent exam Questions with VCE drill Test

Chapter 1, making a altenative on issues in a Multisite Deployment

Deploying Cisco Unified Communications supervisor between multiple sites requires an confiscate dial plan, acceptable bandwidth, a lofty quality of service (QoS) implementation and a design that can continue to exist IP WAN screw ups.

This chapter will clarify the considerations that can arise in a multisite Cisco UC supervisor deployment, and recommend certain solutions.

opting for issues in a Multisite DeploymentTable of contents:1. Multisite deployment problem overview2. first-rate challenges3. Bandwidth challenges4. Availability challenges5. Dial diagram challenges6. Overlapping and nonconsecutive numbers7. mounted versus variable-size numbering plans8. Variable-length numbering, E.164 addressing and DID9. Optimized name routing and PSTN backup10. NAT and safety issues

Multisite deployment challenge overview

formerly called Cisco convene manager (CCM), Cisco Unified Communications manager (CUCM) multi-website deployment challenges can encompass the following:

  • first-class issues: real-time communications of voice and video hold to be prioritized over a packet-switching network. totality site visitors is treated equally with the aid of default in routers and switches. Voice and video are delay-sensitive packets that should receive precedence to evade lengthen and jitter (variable prolong), which might outcomes in reduced voice best.
  • Bandwidth issues: Cisco Unified Communications (Cisco UC) can embrace voice and video streams, signaling traffic, management site visitors, and utility traffic comparable to moneyed media conferencing. The additional bandwidth it's required when deploying a Cisco Unified Communications solution needs to be calculated and provisioned for to ensure that statistics purposes and Cisco Unified Communications functions don't overload the purchasable bandwidth. Bandwidth reservations will moreover be made to functions via QoS deployment.
  • Availability issues: When deploying Cisco Unified Communications supervisor (CUCM) with centralized convene processing, IP phones register with CUCM over the IP LAN and doubtlessly over the WAN. If gateways in far off websites are the usage of Media Gateway control Protocol (MGCP) as a signaling protocol, they additionally depend upon the provision of CUCM acting as an MGCP convene agent. it's distinguished to implement fallback options for IP phones and gateways in eventualities during which the connection to the CUCM servers is damaged on account of IP WAN failure. Fallback solutions additionally follow to H.323 gateways however are already created with H.323 dial friends in a redress H.323 gateway configuration.
  • Dial diagram considerations: listing numbers (DN) can overlap throughout distinctive sites. Overlapping dial plans and nonconsecutive numbers can be solved through designing a tough multisite dial plan. evade overlapping numbers throughout sites every time viable for a simpler design.
  • NAT and protection considerations: using inner most IP addresses inside an commercial enterprise IP community is very usual. web Telephony carrier providers (ITSP) require entertaining public IP addresses to route IP cell calls. The deepest IP addresses in the enterprise must be translated into public IP addresses. Public IP addresses do the IP telephones visible from the information superhighway and for this understanding discipline to assaults.
  • best challenges

    IP networks were not at the genesis designed to raise actual-time traffic; in its place, they hold been designed for resiliency and failing tolerance. each and every packet is processed one by one in an IP network, on occasion causing distinctive packets in a communications stream to capture different paths to the destination. The different paths within the community may additionally hold a special amount of packet loss, prolong, and retard variation (jitter) because of bandwidth, distance, and congestion transformations. The vacation spot should be capable of receive packets out of order and resequence these packets. This problem is solved by route of true-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) sequence numbers and site visitors resequencing. When viable, it's premier to no longer depend entirely on these RTP mechanisms. suitable community design, using Cisco router Cisco categorical Forwarding (CEF) switch cache expertise, performs per-vacation spot load sharing by default. Per-vacation spot load sharing isn't an standard load-balancing paradigm, nonetheless it ensures that each and every IP movement (voice name) takes the identical course.

    Bandwidth is shared via numerous users and functions, whereas the amount of bandwidth required for an individual IP stride varies enormously totality over short lapses of time. Most information functions are very bursty, whereas Cisco actual-time audio communications with RTP exercise the equal continuous-bandwidth stream. The bandwidth purchasable for any software, together with CUCM and voice-bearer traffic, is unpredictable. during top intervals, packets should be buffered in queues waiting to be processed as a result of network congestion. Queuing is a time epoch that anybody who has ever experienced air flight is time-honored with. if you happen to arrive on the airport, you should net in a line (queue), since the variety of ticket agents (bandwidth) obtainable to investigate you in is less than the circulate of traffic arriving at the ticket counters (incoming IP traffic). If congestion happens for too lengthy, the queue (packet buffers) receives filled up, and passengers are annoyed (packets are dropped). better queuing delays and packet drops are greater probably on highly loaded, gradual-velocity links comparable to WAN hyperlinks used between sites in a multisite atmosphere. excellent challenges are common on these styles of links, and moreover you deserve to address them by means of imposing QoS. with out the exercise of QoS, voice packets journey prolong, jitter, and packet loss, impacting voice best. it is distinguished to effectively configure Cisco QoS mechanisms conclusion to linger throughout the network for apropos audio and video efficiency.

    This chapter changed into excerpted with permissions from imposing Cisco Unified Communications manager, half 2, by means of Chris Olsen, Copyright 2008. For extra suggestions about this publication and other titles, gratify dispute with Cisco Press.

    all through top intervals, packets can not be sent automatically on account of interface congestion. as a substitute, the packets are temporarily saved in a queue, ready to be processed. The amount of time the packet waits within the queue, known as the queuing extend, can vary enormously according to network situations and site visitors arrival prices. If the queue is full, newly received packets can't be buffered anymore and net dropped (tail drop). device 1-1 illustrates tail drop. Packets are processed on a first in, first out (FIFO) mannequin within the hardware queue of totality router interfaces. Voice conversations are predictable and relentless (sampling is every 20 milliseconds through default), but statistics purposes are bursty and greedy. Voice hence is belt to degradation of first-class as a result of delay, jitter, and packet loss.

    determine 1-1

    click for a bigger photo

    Bandwidth challenges

    each web page in a multisite deployment usually is interconnected by using an IP WAN, or from time to time through a metropolitan-enviornment network (MAN) comparable to Metro Ethernet. Bandwidth on WAN links is limited and relatively costly. The aim is to do exercise of the attainable bandwidth as efficaciously as viable. pointless site visitors should silent be faraway from the IP WAN links via content material filtering, firewalls, and access control lists (ACL). IP WAN acceleration methods for bandwidth optimization should silent be considered as smartly. Any epoch of congestion could outcome in carrier degradation until QoS is deployed during the community.

    Voice streams are consistent and predictable for Cisco audio packets. customarily, the G.729 codec is used throughout the WAN to most answerable exercise bandwidth. As a evaluation, the G.711 audio codec requires 64 kbps, whereas packetizing the G.711 voice sample in an IP/UDP/RTP header each 20 ms requires sixteen kbps plus the Layer 2 header overhead.

    Voice is sampled each 20 ms, resulting in 50 packets per second (pps). The IP header is 20 bytes, whereas the UDP header is 8 bytes, and the RTP header is 12 bytes. The forty bytes of header tips exigency to be converted to bits to travail out the packet fee of the overhead. as a result of a byte has 8 bits, 40 bytes * eight bits in a byte = 320 bits. The 320 bits are despatched 50 times per 2d in keeping with the 20-ms fee (1 millisecond is 1/one thousand of a 2d, and 20/a thousand = .02). So:

    .02 * 50 = 1 second320 bits * 50 = 16,000 bits/sec, or sixteen kbps

    Voice packets are benign in comparison to the bandwidth consumed via information purposes. records purposes can fill the whole maximum transmission unit (MTU) of an Ethernet frame (1518 bytes or 9216 bytes if jumbo Ethernet frames were enabled). In evaluation to facts application packets, voice packets are very minute (60 bytes for G.729 and 200 bytes for G.711 with the default 20-ms sampling rate).

    In device 1-2, a conference bridge has been deployed at the leading web site. No conference bridge exists on the far flung site. If three IP telephones at a remote web page be a Part of a conference, their RTP streams are sent across the WAN to the convention bridge. The convention bridge, even if the exercise of application or hardware materials, mixes the obtained audio streams after which sends lower back three enjoyable unicast audio streams to the IP phones over the IP WAN. The conference bridge gets rid of the receiver's voice from his or her entertaining RTP movement in order that the user does not adventure echo because of the extend of traversing the WAN link and mixing RTP audio streams within the convention bridge.

    figure 1-2

    click for a bigger graphic

    Centralized convention substances antecedent bandwidth, prolong, and skill challenges within the voice network. every G.711 RTP movement requires 80 kbps (plus the Layer 2 overhead), leading to 240 kbps of IP WAN bandwidth consumption by route of this voice conference. If the convention bridge were no longer determined on the different facet of the IP WAN, this traffic would not exigency to traverse the WAN link, leading to less lengthen and bandwidth consumption. If the far off website had a CUCM location configuration that resulted in calls with the G.729 codec again to the leading web page, the software conferencing substances of CUCM would no longer be able to combine the audio conversations. Hardware conferencing or hardware transcoder media elements in a voice gateway are required to accommodate G.729 audio conferencing. local hardware conference materials would liquidate this need. totality centrally discovered media components (tune On dangle [MOH], annunciator, convention bridges, videoconferencing, and media termination facets) undergo an identical bandwidth, lengthen, and resource exhaustion challenges.

    Availability challenges

    When deploying CUCM in multisite environments, centralized CUCM-based mostly features are accessed over the IP WAN. Affected features encompass here:

  • Signaling in CUCM multisite deployments with centralized name processing: far flung Cisco IP telephones register with a centralized CUCM server. faraway MGCP gateways are managed with the aid of a centralized CUCM server that acts as an MGCP convene agent.
  • Signaling in CUCM multisite deployments with distributed convene processing: In such environments, websites are connected by means of H.323 (non-gatekeeper-controlled, gatekeeper-controlled, or H.225) or Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) trunks.
  • Media exchange: RTP streams between endpoints discovered at discrete sites.
  • different features: These embrace Cisco IP telephone Extensible Markup Language (XML) features and access to functions akin to attendant console, CUCM Assistant, and others.
  • figure 1-three suggests a Unified Communications community through which the main website is linked to a far off web page via a centralized call-processing atmosphere. The main web page is additionally connected to a far flung cluster through an intercluster trunk (ICT) representing a distributed name processing atmosphere. The admixture of both centralized and disbursed convene processing represents a hybrid call-processing mannequin by which minute websites exercise the CUCM materials of the leading web site, but colossal far off offices hold their personal CUCM cluster. On the bottom left of device 1-three is a SIP trunk, usually over a Metro Ethernet connection to an online Telephony carrier company (ITSP). The capitalize of the SIP trunk is that the ITSP provides the gateways to the PSTN in its status of your featuring gateways at the main web site.

    determine 1-three

    click for a larger image

    An IP WAN outage in determine 1-three will antecedent an outage of call-processing functions for the far flung web page related in a centralized trend. The far off cluster will not suffer a name-processing outage, however the far flung cluster aren't capable of dial the leading web page over the IP WAN throughout the outage. Mission-vital voice purposes (voice mail, interactive voice response [IVR], etc) discovered at the leading site could be unavailable to any of the different sites privilege through the WAN outage.

    If the ITSP is using the equal links that allow IP WAN connectivity, totality calls to and from the public switched phone community (PSTN) will moreover be unavailable.

    A deployment dote the one shown in device 1-3 is considered badly designed as a result of the exigency of IP WAN and PSTN backup.

    Dial diagram challenges

    In a multisite deployment, with a lone or diverse CUCM clusters, dial diagram design requires the honour of a brace of considerations that achieve not exist in single-website deployments:

  • Overlapping numbers: clients determined at distinctive sites can hold the identical directory numbers assigned. because listing numbers constantly are fascinating handiest inside a web site, a multisite deployment requires an confess for overlapping numbers.
  • Nonconsecutive numbers: Contiguous tiers of numbers are distinguished to summarize call-routing advice, analogous to contiguous IP address degrees for route summarization. Such blocks will moreover be represented via one or just a few entries in a call-routing desk, corresponding to route patterns, dial peer destination patterns, and voice translation rules, which retain the routing table short and simple. If each endpoint requires its personal entry in the name-routing table, the desk gets too large, a lot of reminiscence is required, and lookups capture greater time. hence, nonconsecutive numbers at any web page are not most excellent for efficient convene routing.
  • Variable-length numbering: Some nations, such as the U.S. and Canada, hold mounted-length numbering plans for PSTN numbers. Others, reminiscent of Mexico and England, hold variable-size numbering plans. an issue with variable-length numbers is that the complete length of the quantity dialed can moreover be determined only with the aid of the CUCM route diagram by anticipating the interdigit timeout. looking forward to the interdigit timeout, primary as the T.302 timer, adds to the post-dial lengthen, which may vex users.
  • Direct inward dialing (DID) ranges and E.164 addressing: When because integration with the PSTN, internally used listing numbers hold to be concerning exterior PSTN numbers (E.164 addressing). counting on the numbering diagram (mounted or variable) and services offered by using the PSTN, the following solutions are usual:
  • each and every inside listing number pertains to a set-length PSTN quantity: during this case, each internal directory number has its own committed PSTN number. The directory quantity can, but does not exigency to, sound the least-gigantic digits of the PSTN number. In nations with a fixed numbering plan, such because the North American Numbering diagram (NANP), this usually talent that the 4-digit office codes are used as inside directory numbers. If these aren't interesting, digits of office codes or administratively assigned web page codes might possibly be introduced, resulting in five or extra digits being used for inside listing numbers.

    yet another confess is to not reuse any digits of the PSTN number however to readily map each and every internally used directory number to any PSTN number assigned to the company. during this case, the internal and exterior numbers won't hold the ease in general. If the internally used listing number suits the least-giant digits of its corresponding PSTN quantity, gigantic digits may moreover be set at the gateway or trunk. additionally, common exterior phone quantity masks, transformation masks, or prefixes can moreover be configured. here is genuine as a result of totality inner directory numbers are changed to wholly certified PSTN numbers within the equal approach. one other illustration is that if the inner directory number consists of materials of the PSTN quantity and administratively assigned digits akin to web site codes plus PSTN station codes, or discrete stages, akin to PSTN station codes 4100 to 4180 that map to directory numbers 1100 to 1180, or absolutely independent mappings of internal directory numbers to PSTN numbers. if that's the case, one or extra translation rules hold to be used for incoming calls, and one or greater calling party transformation suggestions, transformation masks, exterior phone quantity masks, or prefixes hold to be configured.

  • No DID serve in mounted-length numbering plans: To evade the requirement of one PSTN number per internal listing number when using a hard and fast-length numbering plan, it's typical to disallow DID to an extension. in its place, the PSTN trunk has a lone number, and totality PSTN calls routed to that number are despatched to an attendant, auto-attendant, receptionist, or secretary. From there, the calls are transferred to the confiscate inside extension.
  • inside listing numbers are a Part of a variable-size number: In nations with variable-size numbering plans, a customarily shorter "subscriber" quantity is assigned to the PSTN trunk, but the PSTN routes totality calls genesis with this number to the trunk. The caller can add digits to identify the extension. There is not any fastened number of additional digits or total digits. besides the fact that children, there's a maximum, always 32 digits, which offers the liberty to choose the size of listing numbers. This maximum length can moreover be less. as an example, in E.164 the highest number is 15 digits, no longer together with the country code. A caller with no wretchedness provides the acceptable extension to the enterprise's (brief) PSTN quantity when putting a convene to a specific user. If handiest the short PSTN number devoid of an extension is dialed, the name is routed to an attendant within the company. Residential PSTN numbers are constantly longer and don't enable further digits to be delivered; the feature just described is purchasable most efficient on trunks.
  • classification of number (TON) in ISDN: The calling quantity (the automated quantity Identification [ANI]) of calls being obtained from the PSTN can be represented in other ways:

    - As a seven-digit subscriber quantity- As a ten-digit number, together with the enviornment code- In international structure with the country code in entrance of the enviornment code

    To standardize the ANI for totality calls, the layout it really is used should be known, and the quantity has to be transformed hence.

  • Optimized name routing: Having an IP WAN between sites with PSTN entry at totality websites permits PSTN toll skip via sending calls between sites over the IP WAN as an alternative of the exercise of the PSTN. In such scenarios, the PSTN should silent be used as a backup direction best in case of WAN failure. an additional solution, which extends the theory of toll pass and can probably chop back toll charges, is to additionally exercise the IP WAN for PSTN calls. With tail-conclusion hop-off (TEHO), the IP WAN is used as a distinguished deal as possible, and the gateway it truly is closest to the dialed PSTN vacation spot is used for the PSTN breakout.
  • Overlapping and nonconsecutive numbers

    In device 1-4, Cisco IP phones at the leading web site exercise directory numbers 1001 to 1099, 2000 to 2157, and 2365 to 2999. at the remote web site, 1001 to 1099 and 2158 to 2364 are used. These listing numbers hold two considerations. First, 1001 to 1099 overlap; these directory numbers exist at each websites, so that they are not entertaining totality through the finished deployment. This factors a problem: If a user within the faraway website dialed best the four digits 1001, which cell would ring? This hardship of overlapping dial plans has to be addressed by using digit manipulation. furthermore, the nonconsecutive exercise of the latitude 2000 to 2999 (with some reproduction numbers at the two websites) would require a major variety of additional entries in call-routing tables since the ranges can hardly be summarized by route of one (or a number of) entries.

    determine 1-4

    click on for a bigger photograph

    fastened versus variable-length numbering plans

    a fixed numbering diagram elements mounted-length enviornment codes and local numbers. An open numbering diagram points variance in length of enviornment code or local quantity, or both, inside the nation.

    desk 1-1 contrasts the NANP and a variable-size numbering diagram -- Germany's numbering diagram in this illustration.

    table 1-1

    part Description mounted Numbering diagram (NANP) Variable-length Numbering diagram (Germany) nation code A code of 1 to 3 digits is used to reach the selected mobile device for every nation or special service. attain the E.164 common from to perceive totality overseas country codes. 1 forty nine enviornment code Used inside many countries to route calls to a selected metropolis, place, or special service. counting on the nation or place, it could even be referred to as a numbering diagram area, subscriber trunk dialing code, country wide destination code, or routing code. Three digits Three to 5 digits Subscriber number Represents the particular telephone quantity to be dialed, nonetheless it does not consist of the nation code, belt code (if relevant), overseas prefix, or trunk prefix. Three-digit exchange code plus a 4-digit station code Three or extra digits Trunk prefix The initial digits to be dialed in a home call, before the belt code and the subscriber quantity. 1 0 entry code a bunch it really is historically dialed first "to net out to the PSTN," utilized in PBXs and VoIP programs. nine0 international prefix The code dialed before a world number (nation code, belt code if any, after which subscriber number). 011 00 or + (+ is used with the aid of mobile phones)


  • inside the U.S.: 9-1-408-555-1234 or 1-555-1234 (in the same enviornment code)
  • U.S. to Germany: 9-011-forty nine-404-132670
  • inside Germany: 0-0-404-132670 or 0-132670 (inside the identical belt code)
  • Germany to the U.S.: 0-00-1-408-555-1234 (note: the 1 in 00-1-408 is the U.S. country code, no longer the trunk prefix.)
  • The NANP PSTN number is 408-555-1234, DID isn't used, and totality calls positioned to the main web site are dealt with with the aid of an attendant. there's a far off web site in Germany with the E.164 PSTN quantity +forty nine 404 13267. 4-digit extensions are used on the German vicinity, and DID is allowed as a result of digits can moreover be delivered to the PSTN quantity. When calling the German workplace attendant (now not realizing a particular extension), U.S. users would dial 9-011-49-404-13267. notice how the + is changed by the exotic prefix 011 and the access code 9. If the phone with extension 1001 may silent be referred to as without delay, 9-011-forty nine-404-13267-1001 needs to be dialed.

    Variable-length numbering, E.164 addressing and DID

    determine 1-5 illustrates an instance in which the main web site with CUCM resides in the U.S. and a remote web site devoid of CUCM resides in Germany. The NANP PSTN quantity in the U.S. is 408-555-1234. be awake that DID is not used, as a result of totality calls placed to the main website are dealt with by an attendant. A far flung website in Germany has PSTN quantity +49 404 13267. 4-digit extensions are used on the German vicinity, and DID is allowed as a result of digits can be introduced to the PSTN number. When calling the German office attendant (not figuring out a particular extension), U.S. clients would dial 9-011-49-404-13267. If the phone with extension 1001 may silent be called directly, 9-011-forty nine-404-13267-1001 must be dialed.

    figure 1-5

    click for a bigger picture

    The superior judgment of routing calls via CUCM over the WAN or during the PSTN is correctly limpid to the cellphone user.

    Optimized convene routing and PSTN backup

    There are two the route to maintain costs for PSTN calls in a multisite deployment:

  • total bypass: Calls between websites within an organization that exercise the IP WAN instead of the PSTN. The PSTN is used for intersite calls best if calls over the IP WAN are not possible—either because of a WAN failure or because the convene is not admitted through convene Admission control (CAC).
  • Tail-end hop-off (TEHO): Extends the concept of toll bypass via moreover using the IP WAN for calls to the faraway locations in the PSTN. With TEHO, the IP WAN is used as a whole lot as possible, and PSTN breakout occurs at the gateway it truly is institute closest to the dialed PSTN destination. local PSTN breakout is used as a backup in case of IP WAN or CAC.
  • in the instance proven in device 1-6, a convene from Chicago to San Jose can be routed as follows:

  • The Chicago CUCM specific user dials 9-1-408-555-6666, a PSTN mobilephone determined in San Jose.
  • The convene is routed from Chicago CUCM categorical Router to the San Jose CUCM cluster over the IP WAN with either SIP or H.323.
  • The San Jose CUCM routes the name to the San Jose gateway, which breaks out to the PSTN with what now becomes a local low-budget name to the San Jose PSTN.
  • The San Jose PSTN apropos workplace routes the name, and the mobile rings.
  • determine 1-6

    click on for a larger image

    If the WAN hold been unavailable for any motive before the call, the Chicago Gateway would exigency to be accurately configured to route the name with the acceptable digit manipulation throughout the PSTN at a doubtlessly better toll can imbue to the San Jose PSTN cell.

    NAT and security considerations

    In single-site deployments, CUCM servers and IP phones always exercise deepest IP addresses because there is no exigency to communicate with the backyard IP world. NAT isn't configured for the mobilephone subnets, and assaults from the backyard are unimaginable. In multisite deployments, however, IP safety (IPsec) digital private network (VPN) tunnels can moreover be used between websites. The VPN tunnels allow simplest intersite verbal exchange; entry to the covered interior networks isn't feasible from the outdoor—simplest from the other site in the course of the tunnel. therefore, attacks from the backyard are blocked on the gateway. To configure IPsec VPNs, the VPN tunnel must be configured to terminate on both gateways in the diverse sites. now and again here is now not possible; as an instance, the two sites can be beneath distinctive administration, or perhaps protection guidelines achieve not permit the configuration of IPsec VPNs.

    In one of these case, or when connecting to a public provider corresponding to an ITSP, NAT has to be configured for CUCM servers and IP telephones. Cisco calls this Hosted NAT Traversal for Session brink Controllers.

    In device 1-7, enterprise A and industry B both exercise IP community internally. To talk over the web, the inner most addresses are translated into public IP addresses. company A uses public IP community A, and company B makes exercise of public IP network B. totality CUCM servers and IP telephones can moreover be reached from the internet and speak with each and every different.

    As quickly as CUCM servers and IP telephones can be reached with public IP addresses, they're province to assaults from the outside world, introducing skills safety concerns.

    determine 1-7

    click on for a larger photograph

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    List of Certification exam Dumps

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [71 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [108 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [45 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [327 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [49 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [80 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CyberArk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [42 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [16 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [764 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1547 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITIL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [25 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [403 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [42 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliances [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [38 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [315 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PCI-Security [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [16 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [16 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [137 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [72 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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