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Test Number : 300-070
Test title : Implementing Cisco IP Telephony and Video, portion 1 (CIPTV1)
Vendor title : Cisco
free pdf : 211 Dumps Questions

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Implementing Cisco IP Telephony and Video, portion 1 (CIPTV1) book

publication Extract: implementing Cisco Unified Communications | 300-070 Dumps and actual exam Questions with VCE exercise Test

Chapter 1, deciding on concerns in a Multisite Deployment

Deploying Cisco Unified Communications supervisor between multiple sites requires a suitable dial plan, acceptable bandwidth, a top character of carrier (QoS) implementation and a design that can survive IP WAN disasters.

This chapter will clarify the considerations that may arise in a multisite Cisco UC manager deployment, and insinuate unavoidable options.

making a choice on issues in a Multisite DeploymentTable of contents:1. Multisite deployment challenge overview2. first-class challenges3. Bandwidth challenges4. Availability challenges5. Dial map challenges6. Overlapping and nonconsecutive numbers7. fastened versus variable-size numbering plans8. Variable-size numbering, E.164 addressing and DID9. Optimized call routing and PSTN backup10. NAT and safety issues

Multisite deployment challenge overview

previously called Cisco call manager (CCM), Cisco Unified Communications manager (CUCM) multi-site deployment challenges can encompass here:

  • satisfactory concerns: precise-time communications of voice and video own to breathe prioritized over a packet-switching network. every bit of traffic is handled equally via default in routers and switches. Voice and video are lengthen-delicate packets that requisite to accept precedence to evade retard and jitter (variable delay), which might outcome in decreased voice excellent.
  • Bandwidth concerns: Cisco Unified Communications (Cisco UC) can encompass voice and video streams, signaling site visitors, management site visitors, and utility site visitors comparable to wealthy media conferencing. The further bandwidth this is required when deploying a Cisco Unified Communications respond must breathe calculated and provisioned for to ensure that facts applications and Cisco Unified Communications functions accomplish not overload the accessible bandwidth. Bandwidth reservations will likewise breathe made to functions via QoS deployment.
  • Availability considerations: When deploying Cisco Unified Communications supervisor (CUCM) with centralized title processing, IP phones register with CUCM over the IP LAN and potentially over the WAN. If gateways in far flung websites are using Media Gateway manipulate Protocol (MGCP) as a signaling protocol, they likewise reckon on the supply of CUCM appearing as an MGCP call agent. it's vital to attach in oblige fallback options for IP telephones and gateways in eventualities through which the connection to the CUCM servers is damaged because of IP WAN failure. Fallback options additionally apply to H.323 gateways however are already created with H.323 dial friends in a proper H.323 gateway configuration.
  • Dial map concerns: directory numbers (DN) can overlap throughout multiple websites. Overlapping dial plans and nonconsecutive numbers will likewise breathe solved with the aid of designing a robust multisite dial plan. wait away from overlapping numbers throughout sites on every occasion feasible for an easier design.
  • NAT and security concerns: using inner most IP addresses within an enterprise IP community is awfully usual. cyber web Telephony provider suppliers (ITSP) require spicy public IP addresses to route IP mobilephone calls. The inner most IP addresses in the traffic requisite to breathe translated into public IP addresses. Public IP addresses get the IP phones visible from the web and hence area to assaults.
  • first-class challenges

    IP networks were not initially designed to raise precise-time site visitors; as an alternative, they had been designed for resiliency and fault tolerance. each packet is processed one by one in an IP network, now and again inflicting different packets in a communications stream to select divide paths to the destination. The diverse paths within the community may likewise own a unique amount of packet loss, lengthen, and prolong version (jitter) because of bandwidth, distance, and congestion ameliorations. The destination must breathe in a position to obtain packets out of order and resequence these packets. This challenge is solved via true-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) sequence numbers and traffic resequencing. When viable, it's most desirable to no longer depend totally on these RTP mechanisms. remedy community design, using Cisco router Cisco categorical Forwarding (CEF) switch cache technology, performs per-destination load sharing by means of default. Per-vacation spot load sharing isn't an example load-balancing paradigm, but it surely ensures that each IP rush (voice name) takes the identical route.

    Bandwidth is shared through multiple users and purposes, whereas the amount of bandwidth required for an individual IP circulate varies enormously during short lapses of time. Most statistics purposes are very bursty, whereas Cisco actual-time audio communications with RTP spend the identical continuous-bandwidth circulation. The bandwidth accessible for any software, including CUCM and voice-bearer traffic, is unpredictable. throughout top durations, packets deserve to breathe buffered in queues ready to breathe processed on account of community congestion. Queuing is a term that anybody who has ever experienced air flight is widespread with. in case you arrive on the airport, you own to collect in a line (queue), because the variety of ticket agents (bandwidth) accessible to assess you in is less than the circulate of site visitors arriving on the ticket counters (incoming IP site visitors). If congestion occurs for too lengthy, the queue (packet buffers) gets stuffed up, and passengers are aggravated (packets are dropped). greater queuing delays and packet drops are more probably on highly loaded, sluggish-speed links equivalent to WAN hyperlinks used between sites in a multisite environment. excellent challenges are habitual on these sorts of links, and likewise you deserve to address them with the aid of imposing QoS. devoid of using QoS, voice packets smack extend, jitter, and packet loss, impacting voice excellent. it is vital to properly configure Cisco QoS mechanisms conclusion to conclude during the network for proper audio and video performance.

    This chapter changed into excerpted with permissions from imposing Cisco Unified Communications manager, portion 2, with the aid of Chris Olsen, Copyright 2008. For greater information about this e-book and different titles, gladden visit Cisco Press.

    throughout height periods, packets can't breathe despatched instantly on account of interface congestion. as a substitute, the packets are briefly kept in a queue, waiting to breathe processed. The amount of time the packet waits in the queue, known as the queuing extend, can fluctuate tremendously in keeping with network circumstances and traffic arrival rates. If the queue is full, newly obtained packets can't breathe buffered anymore and collect dropped (tail drop). pattern 1-1 illustrates tail drop. Packets are processed on a first in, first out (FIFO) mannequin in the hardware queue of every bit of router interfaces. Voice conversations are predictable and constant (sampling is every 20 milliseconds by means of default), but statistics applications are bursty and greedy. Voice hence is matter to degradation of excellent because of prolong, jitter, and packet loss.

    figure 1-1

    click for a bigger graphic

    Bandwidth challenges

    each and every site in a multisite deployment usually is interconnected by an IP WAN, or from time to time by using a metropolitan-area community (MAN) comparable to Metro Ethernet. Bandwidth on WAN hyperlinks is restricted and relatively high priced. The goal is to spend the available bandwidth as correctly as feasible. unnecessary site visitors may noiseless breathe removed from the IP WAN links via content filtering, firewalls, and access control lists (ACL). IP WAN acceleration methods for bandwidth optimization should noiseless breathe regarded as neatly. Any term of congestion could result in carrier degradation unless QoS is deployed every bit of the artery through the community.

    Voice streams are regular and predictable for Cisco audio packets. customarily, the G.729 codec is used across the WAN to surest spend bandwidth. As a evaluation, the G.711 audio codec requires sixty four kbps, whereas packetizing the G.711 voice pattern in an IP/UDP/RTP header each 20 ms requires 16 kbps plus the Layer 2 header overhead.

    Voice is sampled every 20 ms, leading to 50 packets per second (pps). The IP header is 20 bytes, whereas the UDP header is eight bytes, and the RTP header is 12 bytes. The 40 bytes of header information must breathe converted to bits to pattern out the packet cost of the overhead. as a result of a byte has eight bits, 40 bytes * 8 bits in a byte = 320 bits. The 320 bits are despatched 50 times per 2nd in accordance with the 20-ms cost (1 millisecond is 1/a thousand of a second, and 20/a thousand = .02). So:

    .02 * 50 = 1 second320 bits * 50 = 16,000 bits/sec, or 16 kbps

    Voice packets are benign in comparison to the bandwidth consumed by means of data applications. records functions can fill the entire maximum transmission unit (MTU) of an Ethernet body (1518 bytes or 9216 bytes if jumbo Ethernet frames were enabled). In comparison to facts utility packets, voice packets are very little (60 bytes for G.729 and 200 bytes for G.711 with the default 20-ms sampling cost).

    In pattern 1-2, a convention bridge has been deployed at the leading website. No conference bridge exists at the far flung site. If three IP telephones at a far flung website unite a conference, their RTP streams are sent across the WAN to the convention bridge. The convention bridge, no matter if the usage of utility or hardware materials, mixes the bought audio streams and then sends again three exciting unicast audio streams to the IP telephones over the IP WAN. The conference bridge removes the receiver's voice from his or her pleasing RTP rush so that the user doesn't journey echo because of the retard of traversing the WAN link and mixing RTP audio streams in the conference bridge.

    figure 1-2

    click on for a bigger photo

    Centralized convention resources antecedent bandwidth, delay, and capability challenges in the voice network. every G.711 RTP circulation requires eighty kbps (plus the Layer 2 overhead), leading to 240 kbps of IP WAN bandwidth consumption by using this voice conference. If the convention bridge had been now not discovered on the different side of the IP WAN, this site visitors would no longer requisite to traverse the WAN hyperlink, leading to much less extend and bandwidth consumption. If the far flung web site had a CUCM location configuration that resulted in calls with the G.729 codec returned to the main web page, the software conferencing substances of CUCM would now not breathe able to combine the audio conversations. Hardware conferencing or hardware transcoder media supplies in a voice gateway are required to accommodate G.729 audio conferencing. aboriginal hardware conference elements would eradicate this want. every bit of centrally create media resources (song On hang [MOH], annunciator, convention bridges, videoconferencing, and media termination aspects) endure similar bandwidth, prolong, and aid exhaustion challenges.

    Availability challenges

    When deploying CUCM in multisite environments, centralized CUCM-primarily based capabilities are accessed over the IP WAN. Affected capabilities consist of the following:

  • Signaling in CUCM multisite deployments with centralized call processing: far flung Cisco IP phones register with a centralized CUCM server. far flung MGCP gateways are controlled via a centralized CUCM server that acts as an MGCP call agent.
  • Signaling in CUCM multisite deployments with distributed title processing: In such environments, websites are related by means of H.323 (non-gatekeeper-controlled, gatekeeper-controlled, or H.225) or Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) trunks.
  • Media alternate: RTP streams between endpoints observed at different sites.
  • other services: These comprehend Cisco IP telephone Extensible Markup Language (XML) services and access to purposes corresponding to attendant console, CUCM Assistant, and others.
  • figure 1-three shows a Unified Communications network in which the main web page is related to a faraway web page through a centralized call-processing ambiance. The leading web page is additionally connected to a far off cluster via an intercluster trunk (ICT) representing a distributed call processing atmosphere. The mixture of both centralized and disbursed call processing represents a hybrid call-processing model wherein little sites spend the CUCM resources of the main web page, but large far off places of travail own their own CUCM cluster. On the backside left of determine 1-three is a SIP trunk, typically over a Metro Ethernet connection to a web Telephony provider provider (ITSP). The improvement of the SIP trunk is that the ITSP provides the gateways to the PSTN as an alternative of your providing gateways at the main web site.

    determine 1-three

    click for a bigger photograph

    An IP WAN outage in determine 1-three will antecedent an outage of name-processing capabilities for the far flung web page related in a centralized style. The remote cluster will no longer suffer a name-processing outage, but the remote cluster will not breathe in a position to dial the main web site over the IP WAN perquisite through the outage. Mission-crucial voice functions (voice mail, interactive voice response [IVR], and so forth) observed on the leading web page may breathe unavailable to any of the other sites during the WAN outage.

    If the ITSP is the spend of the very links that enable IP WAN connectivity, every bit of calls to and from the universal public switched cell community (PSTN) will likewise breathe unavailable.

    A deployment relish the one proven in pattern 1-3 is regarded badly designed on account of the requisite of IP WAN and PSTN backup.

    Dial map challenges

    In a multisite deployment, with a lone or dissimilar CUCM clusters, dial map design requires the honour of a number of considerations that accomplish not exist in single-site deployments:

  • Overlapping numbers: users observed at diverse sites can own the equal listing numbers assigned. as a result of listing numbers usually are spicy only inside a site, a multisite deployment requires a solution for overlapping numbers.
  • Nonconsecutive numbers: Contiguous levels of numbers are essential to summarize call-routing assistance, analogous to contiguous IP tackle tiers for route summarization. Such blocks may likewise breathe represented through one or a number of entries in a call-routing desk, reminiscent of route patterns, dial peer destination patterns, and voice translation suggestions, which maintain the routing desk brief and straightforward. If each and every endpoint requires its own entry within the call-routing desk, the desk receives too large, a lot of reminiscence is required, and lookups select more time. for this reason, nonconsecutive numbers at any web site aren't most useful for productive call routing.
  • Variable-length numbering: Some international locations, such because the U.S. and Canada, own fastened-size numbering plans for PSTN numbers. Others, akin to Mexico and England, own variable-size numbering plans. a problem with variable-length numbers is that the comprehensive size of the quantity dialed can breathe determined best with the aid of the CUCM route map through watching for the interdigit timeout. awaiting the interdigit timeout, known as the T.302 timer, adds to the submit-dial lengthen, which may likewise vex users.
  • Direct inward dialing (DID) degrees and E.164 addressing: When considering that integration with the PSTN, internally used directory numbers must breathe regarding external PSTN numbers (E.164 addressing). depending on the numbering map (fastened or variable) and functions offered by using the PSTN, here solutions are usual:
  • each interior directory number relates to a difficult and fast-length PSTN quantity: in this case, each inner directory number has its personal dedicated PSTN number. The listing number can, however doesn't ought to, in shape the least-big digits of the PSTN quantity. In countries with a fixed numbering plan, such because the North American Numbering map (NANP), this continually skill that the four-digit workplace codes are used as inner listing numbers. If these are not entertaining, digits of workplace codes or administratively assigned website codes should breathe would becould very well breathe brought, leading to 5 or more digits being used for interior directory numbers.

    one other respond is to not reuse any digits of the PSTN number but to without vicissitude map each internally used listing number to any PSTN quantity assigned to the business. in this case, the inside and external numbers should not own anything in average. If the internally used directory quantity fits the least-big digits of its corresponding PSTN number, massive digits can likewise breathe set at the gateway or trunk. additionally, established external telephone number masks, transformation masks, or prefixes will likewise breathe configured. here's actual as a result of every bit of interior directory numbers are changed to fully qualified PSTN numbers in the identical approach. yet another instance is if the inner directory number is composed of elements of the PSTN number and administratively assigned digits such as web page codes plus PSTN station codes, or diverse ranges, such as PSTN station codes 4100 to 4180 that map to directory numbers 1100 to 1180, or completely unbiased mappings of interior directory numbers to PSTN numbers. in that case, one or greater translation guidelines should breathe used for incoming calls, and one or more calling party transformation suggestions, transformation masks, exterior telephone quantity masks, or prefixes must breathe configured.

  • No DID support in fixed-size numbering plans: To avoid the requirement of 1 PSTN quantity per interior listing quantity when the usage of a difficult and fast-size numbering plan, it's common to disallow DID to an extension. in its place, the PSTN trunk has a lone number, and every bit of PSTN calls routed to that quantity are sent to an attendant, auto-attendant, receptionist, or secretary. From there, the calls are transferred to the confiscate inner extension.
  • inner listing numbers are portion of a variable-length quantity: In countries with variable-size numbering plans, a typically shorter "subscriber" number is assigned to the PSTN trunk, but the PSTN routes every bit of calls surge with this quantity to the trunk. The caller can add digits to determine the extension. There isn't any mounted number of extra digits or complete digits. although, there's a highest, continually 32 digits, which provides the liberty to select the size of directory numbers. This maximum length can likewise breathe much less. for example, in E.164 the maximum quantity is 15 digits, now not together with the nation code. A caller without problems adds the acceptable extension to the business's (brief) PSTN number when putting a title to a specific person. If best the brief PSTN quantity devoid of an extension is dialed, the call is routed to an attendant within the business. Residential PSTN numbers are usually longer and don't enable additional digits to breathe delivered; the characteristic simply described is obtainable handiest on trunks.
  • type of quantity (TON) in ISDN: The calling quantity (the computerized number Identification [ANI]) of calls being received from the PSTN can breathe represented in other ways:

    - As a seven-digit subscriber number- As a ten-digit quantity, including the area code- In overseas format with the country code in entrance of the enviornment code

    To standardize the ANI for every bit of calls, the layout that's used ought to breathe typical, and the number has to breathe modified consequently.

  • Optimized call routing: Having an IP WAN between sites with PSTN entry in any respect websites permits PSTN toll skip with the aid of sending calls between sites over the IP WAN instead of the spend of the PSTN. In such situations, the PSTN may noiseless breathe used as a backup direction simplest in case of WAN failure. one other solution, which extends the thought of toll bypass and might probably reduce toll charges, is to additionally spend the IP WAN for PSTN calls. With tail-end hop-off (TEHO), the IP WAN is used as a Great deal as viable, and the gateway it truly is closest to the dialed PSTN destination is used for the PSTN breakout.
  • Overlapping and nonconsecutive numbers

    In pattern 1-four, Cisco IP telephones at the leading site spend directory numbers 1001 to 1099, 2000 to 2157, and 2365 to 2999. on the faraway web site, 1001 to 1099 and 2158 to 2364 are used. These listing numbers own two issues. First, 1001 to 1099 overlap; these directory numbers exist at each websites, so they aren't entertaining perquisite through the complete deployment. This reasons an issue: If a user within the remote site dialed simplest the four digits 1001, which phone would ring? This problem of overlapping dial plans has to breathe addressed by means of digit manipulation. in addition, the nonconsecutive spend of the scope 2000 to 2999 (with some duplicate numbers at the two websites) would require a immense variety of extra entries in name-routing tables because the tiers can infrequently breathe summarized through one (or a yoke of) entries.

    determine 1-four

    click for a larger graphic

    fastened versus variable-length numbering plans

    a set numbering map facets fastened-length area codes and local numbers. An open numbering map facets variance in length of area code or local quantity, or both, within the country.

    desk 1-1 contrasts the NANP and a variable-length numbering map -- Germany's numbering map during this instance.

    desk 1-1

    component Description mounted Numbering map (NANP) Variable-size Numbering map (Germany) country code A code of 1 to three digits is used to attain the selected mobilephone equipment for every nation or particular carrier. achieve the E.164 habitual from to peer every bit of overseas country codes. 1 49 area code Used inside many countries to route calls to a particular metropolis, vicinity, or special carrier. reckoning on the nation or place, it could possibly even breathe referred to as a numbering map enviornment, subscriber trunk dialing code, country wide vacation spot code, or routing code. Three digits Three to 5 digits Subscriber number Represents the selected cell quantity to breathe dialed, however it does not comprehend the nation code, enviornment code (if relevant), alien prefix, or trunk prefix. Three-digit trade code plus a four-digit station code Three or greater digits Trunk prefix The initial digits to breathe dialed in a home name, earlier than the enviornment code and the subscriber number. 1 0 access code a number it really is historically dialed first "to collect out to the PSTN," used in PBXs and VoIP systems. nine0 overseas prefix The code dialed earlier than a global quantity (nation code, enviornment code if any, and then subscriber number). 011 00 or + (+ is used by mobile phones)


  • in the U.S.: 9-1-408-555-1234 or 1-555-1234 (in the identical enviornment code)
  • U.S. to Germany: 9-011-49-404-132670
  • inside Germany: 0-0-404-132670 or 0-132670 (inside the identical area code)
  • Germany to the U.S.: 0-00-1-408-555-1234 (be aware: the 1 in 00-1-408 is the U.S. country code, not the trunk prefix.)
  • The NANP PSTN quantity is 408-555-1234, DID is not used, and every bit of calls positioned to the main site are dealt with by means of an attendant. there's a far off website in Germany with the E.164 PSTN quantity +forty nine 404 13267. 4-digit extensions are used at the German area, and DID is allowed as a result of digits may likewise breathe added to the PSTN number. When calling the German office attendant (not realizing a specific extension), U.S. clients would dial 9-011-forty nine-404-13267. word how the + is changed by using the overseas prefix 011 and the entry code 9. If the phone with extension 1001 should breathe known as directly, 9-011-forty nine-404-13267-1001 must breathe dialed.

    Variable-size numbering, E.164 addressing and DID

    determine 1-5 illustrates an illustration in which the main site with CUCM resides in the U.S. and a far flung web page without CUCM resides in Germany. The NANP PSTN quantity in the U.S. is 408-555-1234. note that DID is not used, as a result of every bit of calls placed to the leading web page are handled by an attendant. A far flung web site in Germany has PSTN quantity +49 404 13267. four-digit extensions are used at the German location, and DID is allowed as a result of digits can likewise breathe introduced to the PSTN number. When calling the German workplace attendant (no longer realizing a particular extension), U.S. clients would dial 9-011-49-404-13267. If the telephone with extension 1001 should noiseless breathe referred to as without delay, 9-011-49-404-13267-1001 has to breathe dialed.

    determine 1-5

    click on for a bigger photograph

    The propitious judgment of routing calls by means of CUCM over the WAN or during the PSTN is correctly transparent to the phone user.

    Optimized title routing and PSTN backup

    There are two methods to store charges for PSTN calls in a multisite deployment:

  • complete skip: Calls between sites within a firm that spend the IP WAN in its location of the PSTN. The PSTN is used for intersite calls most efficient if calls over the IP WAN don't seem to breathe possible—both on account of a WAN failure or because the title isn't admitted through title Admission manage (CAC).
  • Tail-end hop-off (TEHO): Extends the theory of toll skip by means of additionally the spend of the IP WAN for calls to the far off destinations within the PSTN. With TEHO, the IP WAN is used as much as viable, and PSTN breakout occurs at the gateway this is determined closest to the dialed PSTN vacation spot. aboriginal PSTN breakout is used as a backup in case of IP WAN or CAC.
  • within the instance shown in pattern 1-6, a call from Chicago to San Jose could breathe routed as follows:

  • The Chicago CUCM categorical consumer dials 9-1-408-555-6666, a PSTN telephone determined in San Jose.
  • The title is routed from Chicago CUCM express Router to the San Jose CUCM cluster over the IP WAN with either SIP or H.323.
  • The San Jose CUCM routes the title to the San Jose gateway, which breaks out to the PSTN with what now becomes a aboriginal within your budget title to the San Jose PSTN.
  • The San Jose PSTN significant workplace routes the call, and the mobile rings.
  • figure 1-6

    click on for a bigger picture

    If the WAN had been unavailable for any understanding before the name, the Chicago Gateway would should breathe effectively configured to route the call with the acceptable digit manipulation during the PSTN at a potentially higher toll can imbue to the San Jose PSTN phone.

    NAT and safety considerations

    In single-web page deployments, CUCM servers and IP telephones continually spend inner most IP addresses as a result of there isn't any requisite to talk with the outside IP world. NAT is not configured for the cell subnets, and assaults from the outside are unattainable. In multisite deployments, although, IP security (IPsec) virtual inner most community (VPN) tunnels can breathe used between sites. The VPN tunnels enable most efficient intersite communication; entry to the blanketed inside networks isn't feasible from the backyard—handiest from the other site during the tunnel. for this reason, attacks from the outdoor are blocked on the gateway. To configure IPsec VPNs, the VPN tunnel should breathe configured to terminate on the two gateways within the divide sites. every now and then here's not feasible; for example, both websites could breathe under distinctive administration, or perhaps security guidelines accomplish not allow the configuration of IPsec VPNs.

    In this sort of case, or when connecting to a public carrier equivalent to an ITSP, NAT needs to breathe configured for CUCM servers and IP telephones. Cisco calls this Hosted NAT Traversal for Session brim Controllers.

    In determine 1-7, company A and traffic B both spend IP network internally. To communicate over the internet, the inner most addresses are translated into public IP addresses. enterprise A uses public IP community A, and traffic B makes spend of public IP network B. every bit of CUCM servers and IP phones can breathe reached from the cyber web and communicate with each and every different.

    As quickly as CUCM servers and IP phones can breathe reached with public IP addresses, they're discipline to attacks from the outside world, introducing learning security issues.

    figure 1-7

    click on for a larger picture

    This get first appeared at

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    List of Certification exam Dumps

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [71 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [108 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [45 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [327 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [49 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [80 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CyberArk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [42 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [16 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [764 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1547 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITIL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [25 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [403 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [42 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliances [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [38 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [315 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PCI-Security [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [16 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [16 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [137 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [72 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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